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ANTH 320 Week 2 Notes

by: Hadley Ashford

ANTH 320 Week 2 Notes ANTH 320

Hadley Ashford
GPA 3.776

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Notes 1/19/16-1/21/16
Anthropology of Development
R. Colloredo-Mansfeld
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 320 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by R. Colloredo-Mansfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Development in ANTH at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
ANTH 320 Notes Week 2 (1/19-1/21) 1/19/16 - Economic facts as “double narratives” o Based on theories of development: indicators with specific history o Based on individual’s culture: culture related to economic experience - Important question= Is development delivering growth? - Shoes as indicators can represent: o Social standing o Desire to fit in to cultural norms o Sacrifices o Sense of cosmopolitanism o Taste, values, family - Alternative development measures: o Human Development Index o Millennium Development Goals o Sustainable Development Goals - Idea of growth as development hardwired into society o Legitimizes modern development o GDP= (according to Gellnar)  Expanded output of goods/services  Increased material standard of living  Industrial democracy - Classifying agrarian society o Large majority (peasants)  “village dialect”, able to place people based on languages  Separate unites, don’t need to be understood outside of community o Merchant class  Ledger accounts- need to understand/keep track of money o Clergy  Religious expertise  Movement across boundaries  Literacy  NO ancestral lineage because don’t want social mobility  Don’t want clergy to take wealth/power into other social classes o Monarch: literacy, ancestral lineage, religious expertise - Capitalism vs. industrialism o Capitalism: distinctive way to determine wealth, wealth obtained by rational/predictable pursuit of money  Earned in different spheres (merchant trade, artisans, plantations, etc) o Industrialism: cultural imperative, not found in capitalism alone - Consequences of perpetual economic growth: o Human toll of industrialism  People need to be paid off for suffering  Destroys family/community roots  Forced machine-like human discipline  Concentrated waste o Pay-off= promise of life improvement  Long-term goals  Each generation lives better than previous  Rising standard of living reflects personal worth o Qualities of rising material standard of living  Productivity: specialization, efficiency  Increased output: improved techniques/machines, more work per person, cheaper goods  lower labor cost  Destruction of factory jobs: fewer laborers for increased outputs  People freed from factory jobs and are able to pursue better jobs  Complex division of labor  shifting/mobile division of labor o Happens with shift to development/industrial society o Work roles/jobs constantly change, need to be able to adapt to different specialization o Constant movement makes mobility necessary to be successful o Jobs not passed down through family o Need foundation of basic skills  New specializations similar to old - Agrarian society: long training/experience in specialized skill - Industrial society: basic training prepares people for changing roles o Education is key o Ex. “All I really need to know…I learned in Kindergarten” book o Basic education=literacy/numeracy in shared history/values and common literature/stories  Literacy  Need to achieve: 1. Basic skills that facilitate training in different specialization 2. Basic cultural knowledge - Functions of education: in societies with perpetual economic growth o Foundation of society o Encompasses what was once learned in home o Guarantees employability/dignity/security o Teaches common culture of given society o Success of nation/school/industry all interlinked 1/21/16 - Industrial society undoes compartmentalization of agrarian society o Ex. in industrial society, all people are essentially the same- all citizens afforded same/similar opportunities o Ex. in agrarian society, people are different (merchants, clergy, peasants) afforded different opportunities/skills - Industrial society success of citizens, schooling, and nation found in growth (improved standard of living) - Confusionism: must consider parts from many different areas, but can’t consider everything because it becomes incoherent o Shweder says being incomplete is okay, but comes with responsibility - What is the role of culture in enabling development? o Do you need certain kinds of values to develop? - Do people need to embrace Western values to develop? o Rostow’s stages of economic growth: similar ideas as recent thinking 1. Traditional society 2. Preconditions for take-off a. Beginning evolution of science b. Find new lands, expansion 3. Takeoff a. Victory of modern science over tradition 4. Age of mass consumption 5. After development  Independence of development of different countries  Each develops differently  Agriculture  industry, capital  mass consumption  Forced ot decide between tradition and modernity  Self-generating  Development DOESN’T work that way - Cultural developmentalists: values of culture are factors in creating material progress o Culture: set of ideals, values, practices, value-centered o Culture as primary motivator for behavior  Rationality/self-interest can be undermined by tradition o Universal human “goods”/wants/desires  Health, justice, material wealth  Development/prosperity determined by extend society has these - Developmentalists vs. pluralists: o Are there universal values that justify cultural intervention? o Do we have to accept poverty and injustice as consequences of cultural respect? - Cultural relativism: no culture is better than other to use to judge progress o One group’s values can’t be used to judge others - Cultural pluralism: Shweder’s view o Universal values exist: loyalty, mercy, justice, etc.  Binding, commitment o Not possible to achieve all of them at same time o Different cultures handle value trade-offs differently o Constant conflict/justification:  Recognize alternative values  Out-of-fashion virtues still respectable-simply source of difference between cultures  Recognize that sometimes virtues must be lost  Why choose one virtue over another  Within group and across cultural boundaries


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