ANTH 320 Week 2 Notes
ANTH 320 Week 2 Notes ANTH 320
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 320 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by R. Colloredo-Mansfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Development in ANTH at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
ANTH 320 Notes Week 2 (1/19-1/21) 1/19/16 - Economic facts as “double narratives” o Based on theories of development: indicators with specific history o Based on individual’s culture: culture related to economic experience - Important question= Is development delivering growth? - Shoes as indicators can represent: o Social standing o Desire to fit in to cultural norms o Sacrifices o Sense of cosmopolitanism o Taste, values, family - Alternative development measures: o Human Development Index o Millennium Development Goals o Sustainable Development Goals - Idea of growth as development hardwired into society o Legitimizes modern development o GDP= (according to Gellnar) Expanded output of goods/services Increased material standard of living Industrial democracy - Classifying agrarian society o Large majority (peasants) “village dialect”, able to place people based on languages Separate unites, don’t need to be understood outside of community o Merchant class Ledger accounts- need to understand/keep track of money o Clergy Religious expertise Movement across boundaries Literacy NO ancestral lineage because don’t want social mobility Don’t want clergy to take wealth/power into other social classes o Monarch: literacy, ancestral lineage, religious expertise - Capitalism vs. industrialism o Capitalism: distinctive way to determine wealth, wealth obtained by rational/predictable pursuit of money Earned in different spheres (merchant trade, artisans, plantations, etc) o Industrialism: cultural imperative, not found in capitalism alone - Consequences of perpetual economic growth: o Human toll of industrialism People need to be paid off for suffering Destroys family/community roots Forced machine-like human discipline Concentrated waste o Pay-off= promise of life improvement Long-term goals Each generation lives better than previous Rising standard of living reflects personal worth o Qualities of rising material standard of living Productivity: specialization, efficiency Increased output: improved techniques/machines, more work per person, cheaper goods lower labor cost Destruction of factory jobs: fewer laborers for increased outputs People freed from factory jobs and are able to pursue better jobs Complex division of labor shifting/mobile division of labor o Happens with shift to development/industrial society o Work roles/jobs constantly change, need to be able to adapt to different specialization o Constant movement makes mobility necessary to be successful o Jobs not passed down through family o Need foundation of basic skills New specializations similar to old - Agrarian society: long training/experience in specialized skill - Industrial society: basic training prepares people for changing roles o Education is key o Ex. “All I really need to know…I learned in Kindergarten” book o Basic education=literacy/numeracy in shared history/values and common literature/stories Literacy Need to achieve: 1. Basic skills that facilitate training in different specialization 2. Basic cultural knowledge - Functions of education: in societies with perpetual economic growth o Foundation of society o Encompasses what was once learned in home o Guarantees employability/dignity/security o Teaches common culture of given society o Success of nation/school/industry all interlinked 1/21/16 - Industrial society undoes compartmentalization of agrarian society o Ex. in industrial society, all people are essentially the same- all citizens afforded same/similar opportunities o Ex. in agrarian society, people are different (merchants, clergy, peasants) afforded different opportunities/skills - Industrial society success of citizens, schooling, and nation found in growth (improved standard of living) - Confusionism: must consider parts from many different areas, but can’t consider everything because it becomes incoherent o Shweder says being incomplete is okay, but comes with responsibility - What is the role of culture in enabling development? o Do you need certain kinds of values to develop? - Do people need to embrace Western values to develop? o Rostow’s stages of economic growth: similar ideas as recent thinking 1. Traditional society 2. Preconditions for take-off a. Beginning evolution of science b. Find new lands, expansion 3. Takeoff a. Victory of modern science over tradition 4. Age of mass consumption 5. After development Independence of development of different countries Each develops differently Agriculture industry, capital mass consumption Forced ot decide between tradition and modernity Self-generating Development DOESN’T work that way - Cultural developmentalists: values of culture are factors in creating material progress o Culture: set of ideals, values, practices, value-centered o Culture as primary motivator for behavior Rationality/self-interest can be undermined by tradition o Universal human “goods”/wants/desires Health, justice, material wealth Development/prosperity determined by extend society has these - Developmentalists vs. pluralists: o Are there universal values that justify cultural intervention? o Do we have to accept poverty and injustice as consequences of cultural respect? - Cultural relativism: no culture is better than other to use to judge progress o One group’s values can’t be used to judge others - Cultural pluralism: Shweder’s view o Universal values exist: loyalty, mercy, justice, etc. Binding, commitment o Not possible to achieve all of them at same time o Different cultures handle value trade-offs differently o Constant conflict/justification: Recognize alternative values Out-of-fashion virtues still respectable-simply source of difference between cultures Recognize that sometimes virtues must be lost Why choose one virtue over another Within group and across cultural boundaries
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