Class Note for ECOL 406R at UA 2
Class Note for ECOL 406R at UA 2
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
Reviews for Class Note for ECOL 406R at UA 2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/15
Lecture 04 01 Sept 2005 Conservation Biology ECOL 406R506R University of Arizona Fall 2005 Kevin Bonine Kathy Gerst Conservation Biolo 406R 506R 1 Ethics and Philosophy What is Conservation Biology 1 Van Dyke Chapter 3 2 Callicott 1997 3 Noss 1999 4 Leopold 1 Role Playing for Thursday next week Problems Addrssed by Consenation Biologisis 1 Genetic Diversity variation inbreeding drift hybridization 2 Specis MVP F VA small populations declining populations meiapopulations 3 Habitat loss fragmentation isolau39on heterogeneity 4 Ecosystem Procsses scale 5 Human susiainability the crux Meiapopulau39ons O Island Biogeography MacArthur and Wilson 1953 mm L WWW WWW 3i mng 4 lv d m 39 i lm m m 3 T55Bble HYPDmESS vmiym tie in mm a is Wm mi mm rhrsholds 132nmmumhllpszlnlimiiawllybeampeyw vquot on m mm murmurla In M colnniza mu henw u Unnatural c quot quot i m imam Mammalianquot cm X HIDE 03000 corridor craze imi Him mm mm W nrrili i m M n Is conservation biology a distinct discigline Biodiversity levels and scales Prevent degradation and loss 1 Scarcity and Abundance 2 Value laden and mission driven 3 Diversity and complexity good Untimer egtlttinction bad 4 Evolution is good genotypic variation process 5 Biotic diversity has intrinsic value a NSoul s normative posmlales a be a 0906 393 o a 9 a 6 i 6 e y m 6 33 We 7 mg a K k a I39 i A 53 5 11 020 g 5 w q f ge i 0 a 1 5 Q o 25 KC 0 x 2 Q 9 y Bx 69 3 9 a six Q 0 hvs 9 Epidelmolog mm og I 1010 39 i 39 CANCER i CONSERVATION Saciaismnces 1 BIOLOGY BIOLOGY agiogeowv we a x w 300 i quot0 i 020 x oo I 0quot Qquot asap7 Qt Q J fe t I L 1 9 IE quota Q4 399 v H a 3 5a 96 5 6 5 3 8 A 1 e x i k 4 5 9 40 P a a Soul 1985 3 E 9 Q a 2 i Figm 1 Cancer biology and conservation biolow arti ual namrc of he Dy are both synthetic multidisciplinary saienccs The dashed line indicates the borders between disciplines and between basic quot and quotappliedquot research Sec text 6 Crisis Discipline VS Neutrality Van Dyke p 57 Journal of Wildlife Management 1937 Wildlife Society Bulletin VS Conservation Biology Biological Conservation Figure 15 The m issue of the juur rial Cmrsm39ulmn Biology published in Meffe and Carroll 1997 May 1937 thograph ouncsy ens P rum Noss 1999 Is there a special conservation biology Origins Soul et al 1978 SCB 1986 Conservation Biology 1987 Ideas Precautionary Principle Value Laden Species differences Umbrella species Advocacy Responsible Advocacy Ethical Advocacy p117 Noss 1999 tropical rainforest vs economic development program Is ConBio distinct discipline n Noss 1999 Society for Conservation Biology SCB 1987 to help develop the scientific and technical means for the protection maintenance and restoration of life on this planet its species its ecological and evolutionary processes and its particular and total environment mamas 1999p 114 12 Noss 1999 Science Management Policy 13 Noss 1999 What does he mean by a special conservation biologyquot How is the Environmental Movement similar to or different than Conservation Biology 14 Van Dyke Chapter 3 Callicott Chapter 2 in Meffe and Carroll 1997 15 Values Elhits Philosophy Basls for e511 mauon of Worth Systemauc orgamzauon of values VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY Instrumentalutilitan39an Intrinsicinherent m Table 21 Four Categories of the Instrumental Value of Biodiversity Category Examples Goods Food fuel fiber medicine Services Pollination recycling nitrogen fixa tion homeostatic regulation Information Genetic engineering applied biolo Psychospi1i tual gy pure science Aesthetic beauty religious awe scienti c knowledge Callicott 1997 17 Values Ethics Philosophy Monetizing discount rate rates of growth and reproduction Economic development short sighted BCA Valuation methods willingness to pay accept travel cost existence value contingent valuation bequest value 18 Madagascar Periwinkle Argument Callicott p 30 Figure 22 Conveniiori View Di economic actiViLy in a market eeenonne sysxem economic goods and money ow between househoids and businesses in a ciosed icup In many economr ios iexinooko soon market economic systems are shown as W here as ii they were seiirccmained and um independent or me naiurai resources U iel supporl ail economies and ail Hey This mouei reinforces ine idea lhai uniimxtcd economic growm of any kind is sustainabie 141 Miller 2003 Households Conventional Economics Ma Maney llavys from neuSShoids Fiow of Team oi production to housennids in pay for iaoov 19 Pure Market Econamic System Fiow of money to businasesxe pay ior products le nnir Flow 01 products ney ows irom businesses and other production Fiow of money 10 Ecological Economics noun mm 7 anl39J L L39 a DC mn uPE AK human anhsymms mu UUFEHS mquot VCDLHHCMK Am EEMCES 2 OW GG quot quot luv WP r m and We Ham n fa quot quotquot 39f d meme 1 A nnns nr snow n V m N 5 dawned Io cunwmr mm n 39 alvslv wu cn39 mm mm SWIM Hm Lquot n ulbgcm MOVEle WM rlltm39l I39M u 39IVIG I swam m m mnune any quot39 quot quotquot V M m hung on mamutcs am 2 way W m hum uullumn ant CVNHDMWL MK namsdanu a uuchZaD 2 ewm Tn ncntnrynal mnnnnnm men A SOC L X L UD39P lm4 hummio 01 HS ueph vn nnn ungrada m nr runnan Ronnie many v Am ham nr Mnnnna anuml mun w mm dr39w mm NAM 1m quotermm am M 1472 Miller 2003 Ecological Ehavauavlslu Unsustamame Environmenla y VS Ecunomic Gth Sustainable Economic Conventional Develnpmem Economics 39 quotan H Guantiw Quality Not very Important Very Important Inef cxem Erricuem high wass low wasxe I1 r 1 quotum 39 ngh Low Nanrenawatvle Renewems Malia discarded Mattel recvcled reused or composth 397 39n Wquot Cleanup Pl39evemiun ompul reduction Input reduction mn wm Ris banem Prevenlmn and analysls precanuon Figure 24 Compensnn of ugsustainab e economic growth and enw mnmemany suswnabra ecenomln development meme Wum 11 Anthropocentric Biocentric Ecocentric 23 Evolution of rights monarchs white males all menquot humanity sentient beings nature 5mm ngnw 7 Ijmmnu gamma Bonuses Callicott p 47 24 12 Burden of Proof Responsibility precautionary principle SMS safe minimum standard 1 Instrumental 2 Intrinsic also 3 BCA 4 SMS Plastic Trees in Los Angeles Developers Conservationists B of P B of P B of P B of P knowledge gt advocacy 25 Perhaps our grandsons having never seen a wild river will never miss the chance to set a canoe in singing waters Leopold6 13 Values Ethics Philosophy Rolston Essay p 35 in Van Dyke text species vs species in the system definition of species vaue of evolutionary trajectory extinction and doors temporal and spatial scales Anthropogenic perturbations fast rate and large spatial scale Cited in Callicott 1997 28 14 Values Ethics Philosophy Ethics constrain selfserving behavior in deference to some other good Tragedy of the Commons Role of religions interpretation 29 Science Vol 162 Issue 3859 12431248 13 December 1968 The Tragedy of the Commons Garrett Hardin The tragedy of the commons develops in this way Picture a pasture open to all It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars poaching and disease keep the numbers of both man and beast well below the carrying capacity of the land Finally however comes the day of reckoning that is the day when the longdesired goal of social stability becomes a reality At thispoint the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy As a rational being each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain Explicitly or implicitly more or less consciously he asks quotWhat is the utility to me of adding one more animal to my herd This utility has one negative and one positive component 1 The positive component is a function of the increment of one animal Since the herdsman receives all the proceeds from the sale of the additional animal the positive utility is nearly1 2 The negative component is afunction ofthe additional overgrazing created by one more animal Since however the effects of overgrazing are shared by all the herdsmen the negative utility for any particular decisionmaking herdsman is only a fraction of 1 Adding together the component partial utilities the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to pursue is to add another animal to his herd And another and another But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons Therein is the tragedy Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limitin a world that is limited Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons Freedom in a commons bringssguin to all 15 Tnhl 33 5mm I mnmimum Mm Inummnenmlmmllam1w an Mm wonunmw 39n n or mm MOT nun run coNsEnA mu Mumquotmmm nmm mim mc ca ugum mm mm mu m mmmu MW mmmwpm m m quotmm mquot m magmaquot m39wm n mu mkctzm39um y vmm 1m Hummuhnum Mam Ml Mm m mm mp my and mum mm m mm W mm mm mm m mmhum m mm VIM wmcxyvltwn mmquot m mmmmyw mmcur lnmluwanu M I my 1 m amwwnmm Ammwm mm mqu mwmmwm mm mm mmmm mm duhk Y mmmmmmu m uwlmmmahtmman 4 LawnHum mm WWW Wm M u m mmpmnkmnnmwmmm Barnum Scum m mmquot a mm 7 Mumhuuylr Wm mvcmmm clolhccm mnmcm h hcm rw mm mm dva n Wmmm rmummmunmln mm m m N mm mm mm WWW wme m m m WWW m Juwmauun 56 me Scrum mwmm m mum1n mw quotKunxn39hmnnm mm payummugmww w wolva m mum WWW WWW I mquot m wan Aulhm xtcmm any m 5 mkuhmlmtrwlwuwnmlmhc WWW rmmn WWW mm lhccuwmumm ghlx mwmmmmnnu mm W mum Wm mmmm WWW ammhmu mu unm w my warm 3 m n noltmplvmucd Rmhu mm mm WW um Mmka m m w uddmrcmmnmruwl MA v ow znnz 31 Personal Example Virtue Van Dyke p75 2 16 1 Should conservation biologists explain the value of biodiversity in purely instrumental terms or should they also include reasons invoking intrinsic value 33 2 How should we respond to the question of What good is it 34 17 3 How do we know that humans or anything have intrinsic value 35 4 How does this quote from Leopold sit with the idea of intrinsic value For mm sp 39rfm m imwn the ileum qf rm iiu39 is a new Hahn madtr H39sc Wh39l39 The Ei39aJlilagn ma unlit 519er Haw iris nuwrwmifh filmy mi of Ri39mt39f The swirlmum who 5139 0 mn hm pfgm mug wally if his pi39 i i39i 39 Thy nille 111m rillExiled Hi 139 km mll39 mmgh n mi hfng 1 all Hm we wJ39m I39mrt lam am pigeons mamw tier 17m Hatl il u39 mw39ul MW nuns map mms39 M Jiril39d haw fmrri39l y mmrm N5 In mis n39r l39fcw alqj rriw 39i39fcicwcn39 a mar swineliming mw Ipmm39 Lcopuld 1963 117 36 18 18871948 Aldo Leopold Foundatioga Objectivity is only possible in matters too small to be important or in matters too large to do anything aboutquot p 226 Leopod 38 19 Leopold 777ining like a mountain a mountain lives in mortal fear of its deerquot Escudila progress It s only a mountain nowquot The planet will survive will we 39 a thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity stability and beauty of the biotic community It is wrong when it tends otherwise Aldo Leopold 40 20 Aldo Leopold Land Ethic and ethic enlarges the community to include biota processes evolutionaryecological biology scale of perturbation temporal spatial violence What is landhealth 41 Aldo Leopold Land Ethic and pyramid 21 Aldo Leopold Land Ethic socia evolution social disapproval for wrong actions human as plain member and citizen not ruler Conquerer self defeating because falsely thinks she understands how the system works and can control it 43 Evolution of rights monarchs white males all men humanity sentient beings nature 44 22 Leopold Property vs propriety Role of land in human history Diamond Guns Germs and Steel Sacrifice Obligation of private landowner Livestock Violence Economics 45 In our attempt to make consenation easy we have made trivial p246 Leopod 46 23 Whether you will or not You are a King Tristram for you are one Of the timetested few that leave the world When they are gone not the same place it was Mark what you leavequot As quoted in Leopold 1949 p 261 The Land Ethic
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'