Botany Week 1
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Parker Thurston on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BOT 1114 at University of Oklahoma taught by Michael Kistenmacher in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see General Botany in Biology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
WRITE THESE DOWN: when plants grow in length, they grow from the tips, from the tip of a root or the tip of a stem, those tips are called meristems or meristematic we don’t prove anything, we find support or do not find support for a given hypothesis Day 1: life: Smallest unit of life is cell at least 1 cell in every living being ability to convert energy must be able to regulate chemical reactions respond to stimulus evolutionary capability must have all characteristics of life in order to be alive Plants: cellulose cellular walls different cell wall chemical in fungi and bacteria non moving grow indefinitely can reproduce both sexually and asexually 4 main plant organs: roots stems leaves reproduction main function of stems: transportation structure store nutrients main function of root collection of nutrients conduction of nutrients support anchorage main function of leaves: absorption of sunlight evaporation of water Day 2: organs composed of tissues tissues composed of cells Leaves: petiole connects leaves to stipules which connect to stems axillary bud found whenever petiole connects directly to stems ligule good for defining types of grasses stipules come in pairs, axillary buds are singular to identify leaf, look for axillary bud at base axillary bud provides growth point for flowers or new stems sheath + ligule unique to grasses meristem: region on plant where growth or cell division occurs Roots: when plants grow in length, they grow from the tips, from the tip of a root or the tip of a stem, those tips are called meristems or meristematic roots designed to absorb nutrients and water, root hairs make for more surface areas root hairs always nearer to tips rest of root designated for storage and conduction 2 main types: tap root: 1 primary root, with secondary, smaller roots secondary root grows off of primary root fibrous root: many primary roots grasses typically have fibrous root systems Stems: made of nodes and internodes internodes are spaces between nodes nodes are attachment points for leaves will find axillary bud, petiole and stipules at nodes what organs does the stem connect? leaves to roots leaf arrangement: alternate leaf arrangement: 1 leaf is attached at node opposite leaf arrangement: 2 leaves attached at node whorled arrangement: any number more than 2 leaves attached at node When and Why do we science: in part: every day evaluate and reevaluate every day based on new evidence a way of understanding things better than before SCIENTIFIC METHOD: 1. observe something 2. ask a question of the phenomena observed (good scientists ask new questions) 3. make hypothesis which is testable 4. make a prediction 5. test hypothesis 6. analyze and interpret a theory is a hypothesis that has been tested many times and has found support in all those tests a hypothesis is generally not well tested what makes a good scientific study: idea/question must be testable and measurable must have adequate controls must be verifiable by others must be repeatable by others Day 3: How to form a hypothesis: If … (statement based on previous knowledge or observation)…, then … (prediction of end result + explanation of prediction) Statement based on knowledge: 7. if a bean plant and a corn plant are planted in the dark 8. if plants require light to grow tall Predictions: 1. corn will grow taller than bean 2. then plants in light will grow taller than those in dark in this experiment, we did not find evidence that (blank) seed receives energy from soil, but mainly receive energy from initial energy packet stored within the seed Possible Hypothesis: If a plant receives light from only one direction, then the plant will grow to maximize the leaf surface area facing the light to increase the amount of energy it can gather via photosynthesis Data supports hypothesis, does not prove test further, in this case, turn plants New Hypothesis: If we turn the plants that once grew towards the light away from the light, then the plants will grow back to face the light once again to renew the source of energy from the light this is how science builds on itself hypothesis becomes theory after hundreds and hundreds of tests which lead to a single idea contradicting tests must be incorporated into theory theory must be able to explain other test results error is a part of science scientists can only inform on very specific phenomena double check things you are told make sure that what you learn is applicable to what you are going to use it on science is a selfcorrecting ongoing process Can study pretty much anything about plants HOWEVER: stay away from light coloration experiments
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