Class Note for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA 4
Class Note for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA 4
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Lecture 08 18 Sept 2008 Lecture 09 23 Sept 2008 Biodiversity Threats Conservation Biology ECOL 406R506R uanQFSlly Of Ar1lZ393lThanksta Guy McPherson Fall 2008 Review Sheet 7 r 1515h S 1 I ab39l39f us ain H y Primack Bonine amp Epps Suzuki Link Ugcoming Readings Tues 23 Sept Primack Ch4 Walther 2002 Thurs 25 Sept EXAM I L r Lab SUNDAY 58p 21Sr 0700 1830h west side BSE Hat water lunch snacks sunscreen closetoed shoes layers binos cooler jug Readings on Course Website BRING Handouts 1a 2 and last 2 pages of 1 Miscellaneous Mt Lemmonrelated informationquot Lab FRIDAY Sep 2639h Kevin Double Check Ranch M 15 hour drive Roberto Ashwin Meet at ESE at 1330h Nathan load van Hitomi walk to Farmer39s Market Todd 13 truck leave campus 1400 or 1415h Zach can drive Return Friday evening to Tucson Dan at 2030h Antje Or Lauren Return Saturday early afternoon Amanda leave ranch by noon Andrew hat water bottle breakfast lunch snacks sunscreen close toed shoes layers Binos GLOVES SHOVELS PICKS Tent sleeping bag sleeping pad etc Readings on Lab Website Kevin bringing 1 cooler 10 gallons potable water coleman stove Ecological services of birds on Jamaican coffee farms Economic incentives for habitat conservation Jhenme Keilermann M 8 When Th ursday September 25 500 Where 225 BioSciences East Q2 Recently we have been discussing biodiversity a very broad term Terms Without strict agreedupon de nitions often are used quite differently by opposing groups Please define biodiversity and describe your criteria and thought process for deciding between conservation projects that are competing for limited funds ie how do you determine that the biodiversity or components thereof over there is more or less important than the biodiversity over here Due by midnight Tues 23 Sept as DOC attachment to M mycotagmai1com via email Take a stand and support your position Follow the classic 5 paragraph essay Make sure you proofread please Con Bio citation format Page numbers only if quoting Avoid Passive Voice Author as subject Pronouns Excessive quoting 9m A Please take out a piece of paper 1 What is your name What is the date 05 point 2 What are the five spikes presented by McPherson 2 points 3 Why are they called spikes 1 point What are the implications for con bio of a positive discount rate 15 points 5 What pesticide is the subject of one of your readings for last week 1 point 6 What are you planning to do for your creativity project Q What seminar do you plan to attend for this class 1 point 7 Assuming HW equilibrium if p 045 what does q equal 1 point 8 Define beta diversity 2 points B Hand your paper to a neighbor but don t exchang Four spikes gt Extinction gt Consumption 9 Population gt Greenhouse gases Time Ed Ayi39es 1999 G01 Last Offer Thr39ea rs To Biodiver39si ry Primack Ch4 Begin here Tues 23 Sep r a 315 35R 0 lam L 3 gtgdoE ZOFS Gmmzou k0 KNEE Threa rs To Biodiversi39fy Habi ra r Loss des l r uc rion fragmenfag ia on Global 96 re Io afion In sives Disease Habi ra r Loss destruction frag men l a rion degradation Mammals Birds Amphibians Cymnosperms Habitat loss and dugmda on Ovemxploim on Invasive species Disease Puuunon Intrinsic factors Percent of threatened species affected Habi ia i Loss des rruc rion frag men i39a rion degradation In The U5 Agricul i39ure Commercial Developmen i39s Outdoor Recreation Lives i39ock Grazing Pollu i39ion Infrastructure and Roads Change in Fire Ecology Logging Habi ia i Loss des rruc rion frag men i39a rion degrada rion Tropical Fores rs 7 Area 50 species lose 1 of original areayear poor farmers including rese r i39lemen r poor soils Madagascar 15 in 2020 Habitat Loss destruction fragmentation degradation Tropical Deciduous Forests Where people settle first Agriculture and Ranching Temperate Grasslands Farming Si Ranching Wetlands just swampsquot Ecosystem Services Biodiversity Coasts esp Mangroves Human Settlement Aquaculture etc Coral Reefs Exploitation Warmer Waters Pollution Desertification Stress arid areas 15 Habitat FRAGMENTATION 1 Smaller Populations 2 EDGE EFFECT increaSe amount of edge 3 Less remains far from edges 16 Habi ra r FRA GMENTATJION Remove 2 area road rail line BUT lose 50 in rer ior habi ra r A B 1000 m Inmmr N ha Railroad 1 km wk 300 m 4100 Road m 1000 m m Interior 37 ha x 4 343 ha ROADS also allow new ACCESS 7 Invasives T Generalisfs T 39 Specialis rsi Edge mm 2m 3m 4m Edge penel lion distanze In qusawnwusmmnv u gm 41n mmm Environmental DEGRADATION amp POLLUTION Biomagnifica l ion especially fil l39er39 feeders Wafer Pollu l39ion Toxins Eu l39r39ophica l39ion Air39 Pollu l ion Acid Ozone Toxins CLIMATE 19 Wafer Pollu l ion EV quot quot 39WE Eu l39r39ophica rion quot339 I o l Oligo rr39ophic l Meso l39r39ophic l Eu l39r39ophic EUTRDPHIC LAKE N P u k 10 x Lamas in EAu ZONE Exmnnmii Mote than ve years after environmental expgrts pledged to reduce the dead zone by more than halfhs avenge size by 2015 the oxygensuepn39vaii band of watef in the Gulf is getting bigger In 20116 the ea measured 6662 square miles 7 Mluissllili nIm 1m mmsmm Lake Larayene 900131125 K L maessz square miles Iull39 n1 Hula Extlit nf dull will Mia1mm Langley average MEAN Wumsiilis Abqu 5000 snnare miles GnaiJhout 15m 7 mquot square miias I39M lll39M39M39M M6 III mm 3111 12mm l WWW Wuwmg am mwnlk Morimcammun Sim GHAPHiU EY Din mm 21 httpblog nola comgraphicsdeadzoneimapOS1007 gif Wa i39er39 Pollu i39ion Dead Zones 1 Nutrientrich water ows in warm 0 9 10mm quot W Lama1 de cient water 11 Global Clima l39e Change Change from average mean surface temperature 1980 1999 quot3 I 10 I 20 I 30 I40 I 50 I 60 I 15 I 25 I 35 I 45 I 55 Predicted change by 2099 23 A US Geological Survey report released in November 2006 indicated that the Beaufort Sea polar bear population has experienced a signi cant drop in cub survival The study also determined that adult males weighed less and had smaller skulls than those captured and measured two decades ago aquot In recentyears winter sea ice has fallen by at least 600000 square miles double the size of Texas Ursus maritimus 12 TABLE 4 2 6 lobal CIimcl l39e Change I INCREASED TEMPERATURES AND INCIDENCE OF HEAT WAVES Exampr Worldwide me years 1993 and 2005 sland as me lwc warmr5l years sinee modern records have hem kepl at lens 125 yeels AnAugusl mus hearwave in France killed over mum people as empummms machtd 40 C own 2 MEETING 01 GLACIERS AN39D POLAR ICE Examples Amt1 Sea summcrim has declined by 15 in am over me past 25 ywsl Slnce 1850 glacier in me Eumpenn Alps have disappeared from more men 30 10 afllleir former mge 3 RISING SEA LEVELS Example Since 1938 oneslhini of Lhe eanslal marshes in a wilellle refuge in Chesapeake Bay have been suly merged by llszng seawnlee 4 EARLIER FLOWHUNG OF PLANTS Example 1volhilds 0 plant species ale nnw llawerln eeller han mebdld several dmdes age 55ARLlEIl SPRING Acnvrnr Example Ona thilld el English bilds are now laying eggs Earlier m lhe year man llley did 30 years ago and oak uses are now Iez ng out earlier than Hey did 40 years age 6 sHlFl s lN SPECIES RANGES Example Twarlllirds of European bullerny speti sludled are now lound farlher nerlh by 35 In an km man xemmled several decades ago l n 9 1me mums Reserves amp Pr o l39ec l39ed A reas Example Adelie penguin pepul 39 ns heve dedjned by unenllnl over the past 25 yems as lheirAnlmclic sea lee habilalmellsnway Nail in Coffin Scum UniNI nr Cnnmrned sdemlsls llusuaa mgl PRIMER DF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 42 Table 42 we am n review Inlcle Ecological responses to recent climate change Giallmem Wanner Em Pnsll me Emmy Anne Menus hmille Pamesanllyeml c anneal ninrMarc Mmlnlilb39l ave mwwuumm a Flam HimElll39 llllml lmm y quotmum ll am quotummamm llkrlmmm lyellml l nymnmmnm Mumsmm llm l m w my meman M m lllmull llmmum Mummlwmnllymyll my my me Umllllxkl39hwl alumna ye m m symmlmmym Tu ml mm mm m mm D umrmplmlll lle mm mm l lul WW ll l mllly ll mullml WM 1mm y W l unmlm rammulllm lymmlum lelull mm mm mm lllm all ulllm lymmumml ll m mm quotmm w w 45 my alwn ml ml my l v ell quotmm ls now ample mldunc nl me mleglcal lmpasls el mm cllmah changu lmm palar Enumal 1n lrnpical manne envllnnmunls memspumselnem llnmne laulmspzll an myplecusynemumlergzmxellenal lllnmnrmeilmmlllnapczlcx In me Cumlnull y levels nesmle culllinuzd uncenainry 15m mmmumly am ecosyslrzm lrzleclmles umr gluhal change our review expnses a cullerevd mm at emluglml cnanye acmss syslems Allnnullll we aye only 2 ill eany slaye ln me muleclen lmlllls a glunal warmlllg vnlnglcal yesmnses l ream llmalecnanye are already vizzlly yismle 26 13 15 435 E 12 450 A E 8 4 Iquot 9 34 quots 2 33 9 1 ED 03 E 24 13 m a E c 08 2g 5 1 12 37E E A 16 v 1950 1955 1960 1965 157d 1975 1950 was 1950 1995 20m Splmg anwal m was Hammng m Flycatchers a pendua T Man Apn May T Mar Am A mpppcasranum NAG Feb Mar Figure 2 Anomalies of d1 erenl pnenddgicar phases in Germany cane ale wan wwm anumanes 01 mean spn ng awrlemperalure Tand NAO Index by P D Jdnes nIIp wwwcrddea adukcmdalanadmlmy Temperamre taken 1er 35 German chma1e stations Pnenamgwcm pnases usad spnng am39va 1n bnds isandofHe1gaIand Norm Seanalcn1ng 1n ilyoamners chedua hyposum Ndnnern Germany and mean an sel 01 ea unldding of ASSELILS hippocastanum and Batua pendua 120 11D mo 90 so 8 i 5 13 10 E d m g 60 9 s a synergy E 50 2 E 40 g z 2 30 Z 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Year A9010N3Hd N u 28 14 Invasives 1 Kathy Gersf nex l week 2 Guam Brown Tree Snake 3 Galapagos Goats Elec rr iC anT Wasmanna aurapLncfafa Invasive insec rs and plan rs migh r be bigger problem 29 httpwww fortusgs govresourceseducationbmbtsihome asp l39nvm d DX39FUITI t shadmi l m mm 39 V than Elm nL 15 httpwww fortusgs govresourceseducationbmbmihome asp GUAM m Saipan m thakzlslzni tnTmIzn mRm mm momnmaa mamas r2 mm snake am y nmcmes suspected mum pammn 31 httpwww fortusgs govresourceseducationbmbmihome asp 16 http WWW fortusgsgovresourceseducationbtsbtsihom e asp Re ults of one mgllt s captures by hand The hand of an him with m ing discoloration and39bleb funuatinn The Brown Treesnaka on Guam FORT gt Resources gt Education gt ETS Home Page gt 5139s Impacx gt Ex nclions gt Summary of Species Sta us Summary of Species39 Status on Guam E irds Mammals Species smus Summary 39 Represems specres thawere affected by factors unreVated lo the brown Treesnake 33 Home Jobs About The 515 an Guam Hornet Biorngy anhe 5T5 amp Paci c Snakes Invasian ola Pmdamr Birds Native 39 Impacts 5 Damages Common Name Scieminc Name smus on Guam quot39339quot quotquot 3T5 Wedgeta ed shearwater Puf nus pacrncus exwpated Comm 5 Wmte4a ed roprcmrd Phaethan lepturus rare CMH39WW 0 quot Veliaw bmem IXGbWChUS SWEDES common m suitable habnats ETS Pacmc reefrheron Egrefta sacra uncommon quuemly Asked MaHard Anas paryrhyrrcros extvrpaled 39 Q 39 Mmmnesran megapode Megapadws Iaperouse extu39pated 39 aimed smug Guam ya Ran Dwswm extvmated CUUSN N reintroduced m a wnahre endosure Whnerbruwed ra Pnlrouunas crnereus exnrpared w Common muorhen Galmule Chlampus rare Brown moody Anuus smirdus rare wme tern Gygls aba rare Whnermraaled groumrdove GaNIL Oumba xanmarrura exurpamd Manana frmtrduve Pnrnapus Ioselcaprla exurpamd ls and swlmet Aemdramus vanrkorenw rare Mrcranesrarr kmgrrsner Halcyon cumamomma exurpamd Report Snake Sightings Tabla o1 Cements Suarch FORT E 17 Manana crow Corvus kubaryl rare ngmmgale reedrwarbier Auoceouoluo lustrma empmeo Guam ycatcher Myrang ireycme extirpaqu Rufoug fantau Rhlprdura mmrons extirpaqu Mmraneswan s amng Aploms opaca rare Cardmal haneyeater Myzomela cammalrs exurpated Bridled wh eeye Zosterops Bonspchlatus exurpated Birds Immduced Commaquot Name Sciemi n Name Slauls on Guam B ackfrancolm Francomus francohnus common B uerbreasted ouau Cotulmx chmenso common Red Junglefow Galus gauuo rare Rock dove Columba nwa uncommon Phlhppme mmeoove Streptopella bltorquata uncommon B ack drungu Drclurus macmcercus uncommon Euraslan treersparrow Passer montanus common Chesmut manmkln Lonchura malacca rare Judas Goa rs on Isabela Galapagos httpwww darwinfoundation orgenourworkfeatured projedsprojectisabela spuesl 50 IE I was 35 18 Invasive Species Threaten Manages39s Diversity By Juliet Eilpenn Washington Post Staff Writer Monday February 27 2005 A06 The eightyear battle to remove wild goats donkeys and pigs from Santiago Pinta and northern lsabela islands has cost at least 52 million and is still just shy of completion The United Nations covered threequarters of the cost The assault against feral goats along with an ongoing campaign against wild dogs cats pigs donkeys and an array of invasive plants and insecw demonstrates the challenge conservationists face in preserving this hotbed of genetic diversity Alan Tye interim director of sciences at the Charles Darwin Research Station on the island of Santa Cruz said his institute focuses on just two things quotthreaw and threatened things Although 95 percent of the species that were here when humans rst arrived still exist in the Galapagos the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources lists dozens on is quotred listquot of threatened species These include the Galapagos hawk and the Galapagos fur seal along with 57 species ofBulimulus snails Other species including plans and insecw are harder to eradicate At this point the 720 introducedplanw growing in the Galapagos outnumber the islands39 500 original plant species Blackberry bushes planted by farmers have spread widely along with quinine trees Newer residents are bringing in ornamental shrubs such as lantana nicknamed quotthe curse of India because it drives out other plants and other garden plans to the 37 Galapagos No Goats 38 httpwww darwinfoundation orgenourworkfeatured projedsprojectisabela 19 PRIMER OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 46 Figure 415 a m 5 mm m 20 Over39Eproi I39a rion fisheries e139c Georges Bank Atlantic Cod Trends in Recruitment and Biomass Recruits Spawnlny Stock Bimiiass Stack Bmmass nuns mt Recruits Age 1m11mns 1975 1979 1932 1935 1963 1991 199 1997 2mm 2013 RezrumnemYear Crassi Biomass Year Figure 115 Trends in recruitment and blomass for Georges Bank Atlantlc cod 19782004 Horizontal line is the average recruitment for 39 41 the quotquot19 senes39 httpwww nefsc noaa govsosspsynpycod Fishing down the marine food web After the large fish at the top of the food web are fished out fisheries go a er smaller fish and invertebrates at lower levels in the food web while their trawling destroys animals and plants on the sea floor Time increases toward the right along the blue arrow Pauly Daniel 2003 Ecosystem impacts ofthe world39s marine sheries Global Change Newsletter 55 page 21 21 OverExploiTaTion SHRIMP TRA WLING BYCATCH BOTTOM OTYER TRAWL Trawling is a meThod of dragging neTs wiTh rollers aTTached To The fronT of The neTs along The seabed The moTion of The rollers roTaTing sTirs up The43 seabed having The effecT of making The shrimps Jump inTo The neTsquot 44 22