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BI 123 Week 3 Notes

by: Rachel Kasashima

BI 123 Week 3 Notes BI 123

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Biology > BI 123 > BI 123 Week 3 Notes
Rachel Kasashima
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Key terms from Chapter 3 and lecture notes from week 3.
Biology of Cancer
Dr. Kelly
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Kasashima on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BI 123 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. Kelly in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Biology of Cancer in Biology at University of Oregon.

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Date Created: 01/23/16
Chapter 3: Cancer Defined Types of tissues Epithelium • epithelium: A sheet of cells that lines a cavity or duct,or the body (as in skin),and that may form a gland. ⿞Main functions of epithelia are: ‣ Protection from abrasion,chemical penetration,and microbial invasion ( • glands: An organ or tissue structure that secretes substances,such as hormones,lubricants,milk,and enzymes. • basement membrane (basal membrane): A non-cellular membrane that separates the epithelial tissue from connective tissue. • simple epithelium: An epithelium composed of a single layer of cells of similar shape • stratified epithelium: An epithelium composed of multiple layers of cells,often with different shapes. Connective tissue • connective tissue: Non-epithelial tissue usually with a supportive function (e.g.bone,cartilage,and muscle).Also included are fat,blood vessels,bone marrow,and fibrous tissue. • extracellular matrix: Fibrous medium of connective tissue. • fibroblasts: Migratory cells that move throughout the matrix,synthesizing collagen and other external materials. Terminology What exactly is cancer? • Tumor (neoplasm): A growth that is distinct from the surrounding tissue. • benign: Non-cancerous.A benign growth does not invade adjacent tissue. • malignant: Condition of a tumor in which there is evidence of,or potential for,invasion to adjacent tissue or anatomically distant locations.Synonymous with cancer. • primary tumor: The original growth from which metastases are shed. • secondary tumor: A tumor that is established following the metastasis of malignant cells from a primary tumor.Also called a metastasis. • metastasis: The process of the spreading of tumor cells.Metastasis also refers to distant cancerous growths (secondary tumors) that result from this process. • metastasize: The action of cancer cell movement to adjacent tissue or distant sites. • Carcinoma: A cancer of epithelial origin. • Sarcoma: Cancer of connective or supporting tissue (bone,cartilage,muscle,fibrous tissue,etc.). • Lymphoma: A tumor originating from lymphoid cells or tissue (B- andT-lymphocytes,lymph nodes). • Leukemia: A cancer that originates in the bone marrow that is characterized by an excess production of white blood cells which are often immature and thus do not function normally. • Multiple Myeloma: Cancer of plasma cells (cells that secrete antibodies) that invade the bone marrow. • leukocytes: A white blood cell.Leukocytes include lymphocytes,neutrophils,basophils,eosinophils,and monocytes. Architecture and cell types of the skin • epidermis: The epithelium of the skin. • dermis: The layer of connective tissue of the skin that supports blood and l mph vessels,sweat and oil glands,and hair follicles. • squame: A non-living skin cell that forms the outermost layer. • keratin: A fibrous protein that gives our skin a tough,waterproof disposition. • squamous cell: A cell with a flat profile. • keratinocytes: A squamous cell that synthesizes and contains a large amount of the protein keratin. • basal cell: A cell at the base of the skin epithelium that serves ast he source of most mature skin cells.It is an adult stem cell for the epidermis. • melanocyte: A skin cell located at the base of the epidermis that produces the pigment melanin. • melanin: A dark pigment made by melanocytes that serves as a protective function by absorbing UV light. Skin cancers • Basal cell carcinoma: A common skin cancer originating from the basal cells of the epidermis. • Squamous cell carcinoma: A skin cancer that originates from partially differentiated squamous cells of the epidermis. • Malignant melanoma: A highly invasive skin cancer originating from melanocytes in the epidermis. • risk factor: A factor (behavior,family history,exposure,etc.) that increases the likelihood of a cancer developing. Basal cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Malignant melanoma • melanoblast: Undifferentiated precursor of a melanocyte. • dysplastic nevus: An unusual or atypical mode. Lecture notes • Malignant Melanoma ⿞~4-6% of annual skin cancer incidence in the US ⿞>95% of annual skin cancer mortality in the US ⿞Melanomas that have not invaded beyond the dermis are ~100% cured by widespread excision ⿞Prognosis worsens as tumor penetrates deeper ⿞Notorious for rapid,extensive metastasis ⿞Metastatic tendency may be due to developmental history of melanocytes (melanoblasts) ⿞May occurANYWHERE melanocytes exist ⿞Not all melanomas are darkly pigmented ‣ Radial Growth of Malignant Melanoma (superficial spreading) • Asymmetric • Border is irregular • Color is not uniform • Diameter is large (>1/4 inch) • Evolving (change in color,shape,size) ‣ Modular melanoma can grow down into the skin (into the other tissues) ‣ Microstaging of Malignant Melanoma • If the tumor has not gone below the basement membrane,it is 100% cure able with simple surgery • Cell Division ⿞Duplication and division of the nucleus:Mitosis ⿞Separation of one cell into two:Cytokinesis ⿞Why is it important to learn about cell division in the context of cancer? ‣ Cell division is required for development and tissue maintenance.It must be carefully registered. ‣ In proper cell division,chromosomes/DNA are replicated and put into both cells with no mistakes. • Chromosomes ⿞Structures that carry all of the genetic information (as DNA) of the cell.This information is the "blueprint" of the cell ⿞Organisms that have 2 very similar copies of each chromosome are diploid ‣ One chromosome is from the mother ‣ One chromosome is from the father ‣ The chromosomes are thus in matched pairs;the chromosomes of a pair are called homologous chromosomes • Steps of Mitosis ⿞Interphase: Chromosomes duplicate,but are not visible ⿞Prophase: Chromosomes condense and become.Prominent;nuclear membrane disintegrates ⿞The mitotic spindle is collection of fibers and structures responsible for moving chromosomes during mitosis. ⿞Metaphase: Chromosomes are distributed in the Middle of the cell by action of the mitotic spindle ⿞Anaphase: Sister chromatids separate and move Apart,toward opposite poles of cell ⿞Telophase: Chromosomes have Terminated pole-ward migration;new nuclear membranes are formed around each cluster of chromosomes ⿞Following telophase,the cell undergoes cytokinesis,the actual splitting of the cell • Non-disjunction (disjoining) ⿞The incorrect separation of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids during nuclear duplication ⿞Down syndrome:trisomy 21 ‣ 3 copies of the 21st chromosome ‣ Every single cell of this person has this karyotype ‣ Non-disjunction occurred in formation of egg cell or sperm cell ‣ Down syndrome is a risk factor for leukemia • Control of the cell cycle ⿞Division (mitosis and cytokinesis) is a brief phase in the normal routine of a cell ⿞The control of the sequence of events during,before,and after division is essential for normal cell life ⿞Consequences for loss of control at any point can include: ‣ Cell death ‣ Chromosome structure and number abnormalities ‣ Cancer • Cell cycle checkpoints ⿞If problems are encountered ‣ Delay for repair/regrouping ‣ Programmed cell death


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