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Part 1 of Notes for Exam 1

by: Aliyah Hawkins

Part 1 of Notes for Exam 1 Bio 1144

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > Bio 1144 > Part 1 of Notes for Exam 1
Aliyah Hawkins
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About this Document

These notes will be for the First Exam
Biology II
Thomas Holder
Class Notes




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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aliyah Hawkins on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 192 views.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
Biology 2 Notes for Exam 1 Taxonomy and Systematics Objectives - Taxonomy - Phylogenetic Trees - Cladistics - Molecular Clocks - Horizontal Gene Transfer Taxonomy-the science of describing, naming, and classifying living and extinct • organisms and viruses. • Systematics- study of biological diversity and evolutionary relationships among organisms extinct and modern • Taxonomic group -sbased on hypothesis; hierarchical system involving successive levels • Taxon- each group at any level • Domain- the highest level of classification 4 Kingdom Concept • Domains Bacteria and Archaea : Prokaryotic cells • Eukaryotic Cells: • Kingdom Protista • Kingdom Fungi • Kingdom Plantae • Kingdom Animalia Types of Cells 1. Prokaryotic Cells -“before nuclues” • lack nucleus • lack membrane bound organelles 1 Biology 2 Notes for Exam 1 2. Eukaryotic-“True nucleus” • nucleus • membrane-bound organelles: internal membrane system (compartments) Binomial Nomenclature • Genus name and specific epithet • ex: Homo sapiens (“Wise human”) • Genus name =always capital • Specific Epithet =never capital • 2 worded scientific name • “artificial” • Proposed by Carolus Linnaeus (1753) Phylogenetic Trees • Phylogeny- evolutionary history of a species Phylogenetic Trees are to propose a phylogeny, biologist use the tools of • systematics. • Trees based a morphological or genetic data. • Diagram that describes phylogeny • A hypothesis of evolutionary relationships among various species • Based on available information. • Monophyletic group or clade • Group of species, taxon, consisting of the most recent common ancestor and all of its ancestors. • Smaller and more recent clades are nested within larger clades • Over time, taxonomic groups will be reorganized so only monophylogentic groups are recognized. • Reptiles were a paraphylogentic groups because birds were excluded. 2 Biology 2 Notes for Exam 1 Morphological Analysis • First systematic features focused on morphological features of extinct and modern species. Molecular Systems • Analysis of genetic data, such as DNA and Amino Acid sequences to identify and study genetic similarities and propose phylogenetic trees. • DNA and Amino Acid sequences are more similar to related species.(closer) Horizontal Gene Transfer • Any process in which an organism incorporates genetic material from another organism without sexual reproduction Vertical Evolution Changes in groups due to descent from a common ancestor . • Prokaryotic Diversity Prokaryotic fossils dated at 3.5 billion years • Modern Prokaryotes are more abundant, lacking sexual reproduction • 1.Domain Bacteria - Proteobacteria : “true bacteria” - Cyanobacteria: “blue green bacteria 2.Domain Archaea - Have an “almost” nucleus - Specialized membranes - Surrounded by wall with Muramic Acid Eukaryotic Diversity • Kingdom Protista • Earliest eukaryotes in fossil record • Most microscopic and found in moist environments • DNA- many separate groups 3 Biology 2 Notes for Exam 1 - Algae • Plant-like organisms (mostly) • 10 groups • Autotrophic (self-feeding) most are photosynthetic , few ingest • Unicellular through large multicellular • Cell wall w/ cellulose - Protozoans • Animal-like organisms • Mostly heterotrophic (ingest-feeding) - Fungi-like Protist • Mostly saprotrophic (absorb feeding) • Mostly multicellular Eukaryotic Diversity - Kingdom Fungi “Conspicuous” portion of the organism is the mushroom/yeast/mold etc. • Saprotrophic (some heterotrophic) • Nature’s “recyclers” • Body= Mycelium: compacted mass of tubular filaments called hyphae • “Fruiting bodies” -site of spore production • Cell wall- composed of chitin • Plant Diversity - Kingdom Plantae > 330,000 species • Eukaryotic and Multicellular • Autotrophic • Food storage compound- Starch • 4 Biology 2 Notes for Exam 1 • Cell wall- Cellulose • Photosynthesis pigments - Chlorophyll A & B, Beta-Carotene • Referred to as “Land Plants” • Fossils dates back about 400 MYBP (million years before present) • Ancestor stock (algae) • Life on land (must get H20, and special innovation (roots) • 10 Phyla (divisions) in Kingdom • Typical combine into 4 categories due to similar characteristics 1. Bryophytes • Phylum Hepatophyta: (Liverworths)-6500 • Phylum Anthocerophyta: (Hornworts)- 100 • Phylum Bryophyta: (mosses) • reproduce by spores (no seeds) non-vascular- lack conducting tissues (Xylem and Phloem) small plants • • require external H20 for reproduction 2. Pteridophytes • Phylum Lycopodiophyta: (Lycophytes)-1000 • Phylum Pteridophyta:( Ferns and Allies)- 12,000 • Referred to as fern and their relatives • Reproduce to spores • Vascular plants- contains Xylem(conducts water/minerals) and Phloem (conducts food/solutes • “True roots”/stems/ leaves due to being vascularized Vascular tissues allow for large size organisms • • Require H20 for reproduction 3. Gymnosperms 5 Biology 2 Notes for Exam 1 • Phylum Cycadophyta: (Cycads)-300 • Phylum Ginkgophyta: (Ginkgo)-1 • Phylum Gnetophyta: (Gnetophytes)-300 • Phylum Coniferophyta: (Conifers)-500 • Referred to as the Gymnosperms (“naked seeds” • Biggest group are the Conifers (Cone- bearing trees) • Includes the following living organisms • Oldest-Bristlecone Pine • Biggest- Gint Sequoia • Tallest- Coastal Redwood • Vascular Plants- Xylem and Phloem (more advanced than Pteridophytes) • Seeds- advanced characteristic, Not enclosed • Contains: embryo, stored food, integument Does NOT require external H20 for reproduction - pollen tube delivers sperm to • egg location 4. Angiosperms • Phylum Anthophyta- over 300,000 species • Produce flowers, fruits, most advanced vascular tissues and seeds • Seeds- advanced character, enclosed in a vessel (fruit), has survival value • Contains: embryo, stored food. 2 integuments • Does NOT require external H20- (Pollen tube) • Flowers- attract pollinators • Fruits-enclose/ protect seeds and assist with seed dispersal Animal Diversity • Kingdom Animalia • over 1.5 million species 6 Biology 2 Notes for Exam 1 35 phylum • • More similarity within animal genomes that other Kingdoms • Characteristics: • Multi-cellular • Lack cell wall • Sexual reproduction with mobile, small sperm, and larger, non-motile egg • Nervous Tissue- complexity • How Genes- embryonic development patterns • Heterotrophs • Movement -muscle system • Sexual Reproduction Metazoans • “Multicellular animals” • Parazoans-sponges • Eumetazoans- “true” multicellular animals Classification/ Systematics • Morphology • Development • Molecular genetics Body Plans • Morphological and Developmental features - Body Symmetry (balanced proportions of body on sides of a plane) - Number of tissue layers - Patterns of Embryonic Development Symmetry • Eumetazoan- divided by symmetry 7 Biology 2 Notes for Exam 1 - Radiata (radically symmetric) • Divided equally by any longitudinal plane through the central axis • Circular or tubular in shape, with a mouth at one end - Bilateral (bilateral symmetry) • Divided along a vertical plane to produce two halves • Cephalization and Dorsal and Ventral sides • Anterior and Posterior ends Tissues • Metazoa- all animals - divided based on if they have specialized tissues - Parazoa- without specialized tissues or organs • Porifera (sponges) • May have distinct cell types - Eumetazoa ( More than 1 type of tissue and organs) • ALL other animals Germ Layers • Radiata and Bilateria differ in # of embryonic cell layers (germ layers) - Radiata- 2 layers (diploblastic) - Bilateria- 3 layers (triploblastic) • Cell layers develop during Gastrulation - Inner layer: endoderm - Outer layer: ectoderm - Mesoderm: 3rd layer in bilateral animals • Forms muscles and most organs Embryonic Development • Protostome 8 Biology 2 Notes for Exam 1 - blastopore (first opening ) becomes mouth - Cleavage is determinate • Fate if embryonic cells is determines early • Deuterostome - blastopore (first opening) becomes anus - Cleavage is indeterminate • Each cell produced by early cleavage can develop into a complete embryo - Second opening becomes mouth Other Morphological Characteristics used in Classification • In the past, presence or absence of a coelom or body segmentation was used in construction of phylogenies • Molecular data suggest features are unreliable in terms of understanding evolutionary history 1. Body Cavity • Coelom- a fluid-filled body cavity - Eucoelomate (true coelom)- Coelom completely lined with Mesoderm - Pseudocoelomate- Coelom only partially lined with mesoderm - Acoelomate- lack a body cavity and instead have mesenchyme - Ex. Flat worms 2. Function of the Coelom • Cushions internal organs • Enables movement and growth of internal organs independent of the body wall • Fluid acts as a simple circulatory system 3. Segmentation • Body divides into region called segments - Occur in annelid worms, arthropods and chordates 9 Biology 2 Notes for Exam 1 - allows specialization of body regions Molecular Views of Animal Diversity • Scientist now use molecular techniques to classify animals - Compare similarities in DNA, RNA and Amino Acids - Closely related organism have fewer differences than this most distantly related • Advantage over morphological data in that genetic sequence are easier to quantify and compare. - Example: A, T, G, C OF DNA • Morphological data is more subjective Genes used in Molecular Systematics • Studies often focus on ribosomal RNA (rRNA) - Universal in all organisms - Changes slowly over time • HoxGenes also often studied - All animals - Duplications in these may have led to evolution of complex body forms • Phylogenies constructed using rRNA and HoxGenes are similar and often argue with those based on morphology Invertebrates Phylum Porifera • sponges • lack tissues (organs) • multicellular • “pores”- filter H20 and food Phylum Cnidaria 10 Biology 2 Notes for Exam 1 • Jellyfishes, Corals, anemones • Diploblastic development - 2 tissue layers • Endoderm and Ectoderm • Mesoglea- gelatinous covering • Nerve Net- interconnected nerve cells. no brain • 1 Opening with gastrovascular cavity • Protostomes Phylum Ctenophora • Comb jellies • Diploblastic development • endoderm and ectoderm • mesoglea • Nerve Net 1 opening with gastrovascular cavity • • Protostomes Phylum Platyhelminthes • Flat worms, flukes, tapeworms • Triploblastic development- 3 tissue layers (endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm) • Organs and Organ systems • Enhanced nerve net w 2 cerebral ganglia • 1 opening with gastrovascular cavity • Protostomes Phylum Rotifera • Rotifers • Pseudocoelomate • Triploblastic development 11 Biology 2 Notes for Exam 1 • Complete gut tract- alimentary canal • 2 openings • “Corona • Simple brain • Protostomes Phylum Mollusca • Snails, slugs, oysters, octopus, squid • Triploblastic • Eucoelomate • Complete gut tract • Protostomes Phylum Annelida • Segmented/ Ringed worms Triploblastic • • Ecoelomatic • Complete Gut Tract • Protostomes • Enhanced nervous system Phylum Nematoda • Round worms • Triploblastic • Pseudocoelomate • Complete gut tract • Protostomes Phylum Arthopoda • Insects, crustaceans, spiders, ticks 12 Biology 2 Notes for Exam 1 • highest species diversity of Animals (Probably over 1.5 million) • Hardened exoskeleton • Eucoelomate • Complete gut tract • Protostomes • Enhanced nervous system- (insects particularly have enhanced brain • Segmented appendages Phylum Echinodermata • Sea stars, Urchins, Sea cucumbers, Sand Dollars • Triploblastic • Eucoelomate • Complete gut tract • Deuterostomes Simple nervous system • • Endoskeleton- series of plates 13


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