Bible as Literature: Week 2
Bible as Literature: Week 2 ENGLIT 0597
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asmita Joshi on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENGLIT 0597 at University of Pittsburgh taught by H. David Brumble in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Bible as Literature in Foreign Language at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Bible As Literature Lecture Notes Week 2 Jan 18th Theophany the appearance of to God to man Etiology the cause of/origin of Many found and focus of Genesis ❖ Life ❖ Sin ❖ Women ❖ Labor pains and desire ❖ Field Labor ❖ Clothes ❖ Male dominance ❖ Cities ❖ Death ❖ Why snakes slither ❖ Grapes and wine Genesis Continued... Story of Lamech 4:23 ❖ Warrior Boasts (handout) ❖ The greater the warrior you are the greater your revenge ➢ The Law of Moses limits revenge Adam’s Descendants to Noah and His Sons 5 5:32 ❖ Primarily Genealogies of Adam to Noah ❖ Man lived for 700 800 years ❖ For tribal people, genealogies are incredibly important ➢ Nomadic people ➢ It places you in relation to other people ➢ Who you are and where you came from The Wickedness of Humankind 6:1 6:4 ➢ The story of Titans and Giants ➢ Sons of god and daughters of humankind have children ■ Sons of god other heavenly beings ■ Tremendous trespass on the divine ■ Active presumption on the part of the humans ■ Desecration on the part of the gods ■ Rising above your place in the order and hierarchy ● Considered the Sin of Titans ➢ Giants are created Asmita Joshi Bible As Literature Brumble ■ Disdainful and prideful ■ Also called Nephilim ➢ Justification for the necessity for the flood ➢ Because of the Sin ■ Humans lifespan shortens to 125 years ● However, Moses lived for 175 years Noah Pleases God 6:56:12 ❖ Warning of the flood ❖ Lord saw the wickedness of human beings and evil in their hearts ❖ He regretted making humans ❖ He decided to destroy every being, including birds and beasts ❖ Lord found Noah, a blameless and righteous man Preparation of the Flood 6:14 6:22 ❖ God makes a covenant with Noah ❖ Make an ark out of gopherwood that is 300 cubits x 50 cubits x 30 cubits ❖ Go into the ark with your wife, sons and son’s wives ❖ Bring two of all living creatures and keep them alive ❖ Provide yourself with all the necessary food The Great Flood 7:17:5 ❖ Of every clean animal take seven pairs ❖ Of every unclean animal take one pair ❖ Seven pairs of every bird ❖ In seven days from now I will make it rain for 40 days and 40 nights 7:6 7:24 ❖ Noah was 600 years old when the flood came ❖ Took his family and all the animals in pairs ❖ After 7 days, the waters came from the gates of heaven and from the abyss below ❖ Poured for 40 days and 40 nights until highest mountains were submerged ❖ God wiped out every living being on land and air, only Noah and those on his ark remained The Flood Subsides 8:18:22 ❖ After 150 days God remembered about Noah and the ark ❖ He made a wind sweep over the waters and they began to subside ❖ Noah sent out a Raven and a Dove to check for dry land ❖ After the earth had dried, God commanded Noah to send out the animals and his family ➢ Go forth and multiply ❖ Noah sacrificed something from every clean animal ❖ After Noah’s sacrifice God decided he would never destroy the Earth and all beings again Asmita Joshi Bible As Literature Brumble Notes on Flood Story ❖ Similar to Gilgamesh ➢ Ancient Mesopotamian flood story ■ Gods are annoyed and bring flood ➢ Hebrew story involves the flood being someone's fault ■ Sin of Titans and wickedness of man ❖ Noah’s ark is small compared to modern times. But compared to times then, it was an unimaginable large ship ❖ Raven and Dove ➢ Ravens seen as carrion birds unclean bird ■ Associated with death, indicating the death of all beings on land that Noah sees ➢ Dove seen as a clean bird ❖ Noah’s genealogy mentioned many times ➢ Sons Shem, Ham and Japheth ❖ Multiple Authorship ➢ P (Priestly source) writes about clean and unclean animals along with sacrifice Parallels Noah and the First 3 Chapters of Genesis 1) Covenant with Noah; Covenant with Abraham 2) Ham saw Noah naked; nakedness of Adam and Eve 3) Ham was cursed; Cain was cursed 4) God orders Noah to go forth and multiply; Adam and Eve are ordered to do the same 5) God gives grace to Adam and Eve (clothes them) ; to Noah (blessed descendants after flood) 6) The spirit or breath of God upon the surface of water oRuach 7) Withdrawal of waters after the flood; after creation 8) Noah given dominance over animals; Adam given dominance over animals 9) Waters from above and below a) During the flood waters rise the sea and from the windows of heaven b) During creation, god separated the waters Noah and His Sons 9:189:22 ➢ Shem, Ham and Japheth ➢ Noah plants vineyard, drinks wine and sleeps naked ➢ Ham saw his father naked ➢ Ham tells his brothers and they cover him up ➢ Noah wakes and finds what his son had done ➢ Sin of Ham ○ Noah curses his son ○ Curse involves cursing Ham’s descendants, the Canaanites Notes on Sin of Ham ❖ Act of presumption by son in hierarchical society ❖ Sin comes from telling his brothers about what he has seen Asmita Joshi Bible As Literature Brumble ➢ Source is pride ❖ Two interpretations ❖ Sex between father and son ➢ “see the nakedness of” euphemism for sexual relations ❖ Ham is literally looking at his father naked ➢ shame of nakedness ➢ similar to the shame by adam and eve ➢ Indicated by the response of the brothers to immediately cover him ❖ Ham’s Punishment ➢ Ham punished through his descendants ■ Canaanites are cursed eventually become slaves, exiled and killed ➢ Belief in no afterlife ■ Person lives through descendants ■ Shows importance of genealogy Tower of Babel 9:19:9 ❖ All the languages of the world came from Babylon ❖ The people built a tower to the heavens ❖ God saw the tower and was upset at their reach for the divine ❖ Punishment ➢ God scattered all the people of Babylon all over the world and changed the language into many ➢ So they could not understand each other and build another tower that high Notes on the Sin of Babel ➢ Building a tower as high as god ○ Act of presumption ■ Like Adam and Eve who wanted to be like God ○ Trespassing upon the divine ➢ Tower was a Babylonian ziggurat ○ Looks like steps to heaven ■ Shows pride and presumption of people ■ Babylon a great city ○ Cities seen as a place of sin ➢ Etiology ○ All the languages of the world come from babylon The Call of Abram 12:112:9 ❖ God asks Abraham to leave his land and people behind and blindly follow him to another land ❖ Promises to make his people great and blesses his descendants the chosen people ❖ When he was 75, Abraham left with his wife Sarai and his nephew Lot ➢ Made their way to the land of Canaan ➢ God gave this land to Abraham’s descendants Abraham and Sarai in Egypt 12:1012:20 Asmita Joshi Bible As Literature Brumble ❖ Famine in Egypt ❖ When they go to Egypt, Abraham thinks that the Pharaoh will want his beautiful wife ➢ So he lies, and says that he is Sara’s brother so the Pharaoh won’t kill him ❖ The Pharaoh sees Sara and takes her ➢ Abraham is spared ❖ God sees that the Pharaoh has taken Sara ➢ Strikes Egypt with several plagues ❖ Pharaoh allows them to leave ➢ Asks Abraham why he lied Notes about Abraham and Egypt ➢ Abraham and his people become the chosen people ○ Asks for obedience and trust from Abraham in return ■ Leave a land you know well and go where I tell you blindly ○ Blessed descendants importance of genealogy ○ Gives him his new identity ➢ God protects Abraham ○ Even though Abraham lied to Pharaoh ○ Upholds covenant ➢ Plague on Egypt ○ Egyptians are not God’s Chosen people ■ Very crucially shown in Genesis ● Plague happens 3 times in Egypt in Genesis ● Prediction for Exodus Abram and Lot Separate 13:113:18 ❖ There were quarrels between Lot and Abraham herders ➢ Canaanites and Perizzites ❖ Abraham gives Lot a choice of land ➢ Fertile land of Jordan Plains ➢ Less fertile land of Canaan ❖ Lot chooses Jordan Plains ❖ Lot goes to the City of Sodom ➢ Sodom had many sinners and wicked people ❖ God asks Abraham to open his eyes ➢ In that direction he will receive that land ➢ Foreshadows the land Moses will possess Notes on Lot’s Choice ➢ Out of humility and generosity Abraham lets Lot choose ○ God gives Abram land for his descendants ○ Abraham waits for God to tell him to open his eyes ■ Reliant on God ➢ Out of pride and presumption Lot chooses the better of the two Asmita Joshi Bible As Literature Brumble ○ Goes to land of Sodom ■ Land of Sin Lot’s Captivity and Rescue 14:1 14:15 ❖ Lot is taken by the group of Kings ➢ Including the King of Sodom and King of Gomorrah ❖ Abraham takes 318 men to find the coalition of Kings Notes about Destruction of Kings ➢ No account of battle at all. ➢ Bible denies glory to human warriors, a typical trend ➢ Focuses of strength of Yahweh and the protection of Abraham The Birth of Ishmael 16:116:15 ❖ Sarah hasn’t had children yet with Abraham ❖ So she sends her maid, Hagar the Egyptian and gave her to her husband ❖ Hagar had Abraham’s wife ➢ After she looked with contempt at Sara ❖ Sara sent Hagar away ❖ An angel of the Lord found Hagar ❖ The Lord told her to call her son, Ishmael ➢ He will be wild and live at odds with his kin ❖ She called God Elroi A Son Promised to Abraham and Sarah 18:118:15 ➢ The Lord appeared to Abraham ○ Meaning the Lord was accompanied by two angels divine messengers ➢ Sarah and abraham will have a son promised by God named Issac ○ Both are old at this point ○ Both laugh at God at the idea of conceiving in old age Judgment Pronounced on Sodom 18:1618:33 ➢ Divine messengers immediately go to Sodom afterward to destroy ○ Abraham goes along ➢ God hides from Abraham what he is about to do ➢ Abraham selflessly begins bargaining with God ○ Asks God that will he destroy the good along with the evil? ■ God agrees that if there are 10 righteous people in the city, he won’t destroy The Depravity of Sodom 19:119:11 ❖ Angels come to Sodom and talk to Lot ➢ Tell him to flee ➢ He feeds them baked unleavened bread ❖ The men of Sodom come to rape the messengers Asmita Joshi Bible As Literature Brumble ➢ in order to humiliate them ❖ Instead of handing over the messengers, Lot hands over his two virgin daughters ➢ The wickedness of sexual violence ❖ The angels protect Lot and blind the men when they threaten Lot Sodom and Gomorrah Destroyed 19:1219:29 ❖ Angels ask Lot to get his family and flee the city ➢ Lot lingered until the morning before the destruction of the city ➢ Angels and God physically brought him outside the city ■ God saves Lot and his family ➢ Lot insists on going a small village called Zoar ■ While they leave, Lot’s wife looks back at the city's destruction, even though she is commanded not to look back ■ She is turned into a pillar of salt in the Dead Sea ● Another etiology ❖ The Angles rain sulfur and fire on Sodom and Gomorrah ➢ The cities were destroyed ➢ Not one good innocent person was found within the city Notes on Lot and Destruction of Sodom ➢ Hebrew bible is fundamentally about covenant ○ When Abraham bargains with God it shows that he is selfless ○ He does not gain anything by saving Sodom ➢ Hospitality comparison ○ Abraham gives guests the best meat of his sheep to the divine messengers ○ Lot serves them unleavened bread The Shameful Origin of Moab and Ammon 19:30 19:38 ❖ Lot stayed in Zoar with his two daughters ❖ His daughters figure that since their world is destroyed, they will never get married ❖ They decide to get Lot drunk and rape him ➢ On the first night the first daughter slept with her father ■ She became pregnant and had a son named Moab ● Ancestor of the Moabites ● Moab means “from thy father” ➢ On the second night the second daughter slept with her father ■ She became pregnant and had a son named Benammi ● Ancestor of the Ammonites ● Benammi means “son of my kinsman” Notes on Moab and Ammon ➢ Lot offers his daughters ○ Is he doing the right thing? ○ Does not offer the messengers of god Asmita Joshi Bible As Literature Brumble ○ But still is offering up his daughters ➢ Offers up his daughters to be raped, but the he himself is raped ○ Poetic justice 1. Yahweh opens Sarah’s womb and she is then pregnant: Reliant on God ○ Then, Abraham and Sarah’s son, Isaac becomes the father of chosen people 2. Lot’s daughters take matters into their own hands and sleep with their father: Self reliance ○ Result in the Moabites and Ammonites ○ Insulting national etiology The Good and the Bad in the Hebrew Bible so far... Good Bad Submission and Obedience Disobedience Humility Pride and Presumption Sacrifice and Selflessness Selfishness Hospitality Inhospitality Loyalty Hesed Fickleness and aloofness Reliance on God Self reliance Marriage and Procreating Sexual Transgressions Asmita Joshi Bible As Literature Brumble
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