Working of the Mind: Week 2 Notes
Working of the Mind: Week 2 Notes 0816
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tamika White on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 0816 at Temple University taught by Andrew Karpinski in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Workings of the mind in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
WEEK2: Objectives and outlines from blackboard 1/20 Lecture outline Memory stores Sensory memory- holds sensory information for a few seconds Short Term memory - holds non-sensory information about 15-20 seconds Long term memory- holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years. Has no known capacity limits 228 CHAPTER6:MEMORY • Figure 6.8 (Page 228) ▯ FIGURE 6.8 Maintenance rehearsal The Flow of Information through the Memory System Information Sensory Sensory Short-term Long-term moves through several stages of input memory memory memory as it gets encoded, stored, Attention Encoding and made available forlaterretrieval. Retrieval Unattended Unrehearsed information information information is lost. is lost. may be lost Just think of all the song lyrics you can recite by heart, and you’ll understand that you’ve got a lot of information tucked away in long-term memory! AChunking- Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters orven’t thought of tchunks that are more easily held in short-term memory.t even 50 years after graduation, people can accurately recognize about 90% of their high school classmates from yearbook photographs (Bahrick, 2000). The feat is the more remarkable when you consider that most of this information had probably not been accessed for years before the experiment. KEVIN MAZUR/WIREIMAGE/GETTY IMAGES The Role of the Hippocampus as Indexople consciously or intentionally retrieve Wherpast experiencesemory located in the brain? The clues to answering this question come from patients who are unable to store long-term memories. Not everyone has the same ability•toSemantic Memory- a network of associated facts and concepts, that man, known then by the initials HM, suffered from intractable epilepsy (Scoville & Milner, 1957). In a desperate attempt to stop the seizures, HM’s doctors removed parts of his tem- poral lobes, including the hippocampus and some surrounding regions ( FIGURE 6.9 the operatio•, Episodic Memory- a collection of past personal experiences thatorm well on intelligenceoccurred at a particular timeber anything that happened to a the operation. HM could repeat a telephone number with no difficulty, suggesting that his short-term memory store was just fine (Corkin, 1984, 2002; Hilts, 1995; Squire, 2009). But after information left the short-term store, it was gone forever. For example, he would often forget that he had just eaten a meal or fail to recognize the hospital staff who helped Implicit Memory - Occurs when past experiences influence later behavior and performance, even though people are not trying to recollect them and are not aware that they are remembering them • Procedural Memory- The gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice or “knowing how” to do things • Priming - Enhances ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object as, a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus Amnesia Retrograde- the inability to retrieve information from the short-term store into the long term store Anterograde - the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store Objectives • Describe the three memory stores and explain how information is transferred from one store to another • Explain the differences between implicit and explicit memory and the subtypes of each • Define the types of amnesia and explain what they tell us about memory 1/20 Memory: Reading Notes 219-230, 232-242 IMPORTANT HIGHLIGHTS • Case studies related to topic • Definitions and everything bold • Parts of the brain that different kinds of memory effects MEMORY – the ability to store and retrieve information over time. 3 Key Functions of Memory: • Encoding-the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory • Storage- the process of maintaining information in memory over time 228 CHAPTER6:MEMORY • Retrieval- the process of bringing to mind information that has • been previously encoded and stored Maintenance rehearsal ▯ FIGURE 6.8 The Flow of Information through the Memory System Information Sensory Sensory Short-term Long-term moves through several stages of input memory Attention memory Encoding memory as it gets encoded, stored, and made available forlaterretrieval. Retrieval Unattended Unrehearsed information information information is lost. is lost. may be lost Just think of all the song lyrics you can recite by heart, and you’ll understand that you’ve got a lot of information tucked away in long-term memory!mories Am1. Elaborative Encoding- actively relating new information to knowledge thatthought of them fis already in our memoryesearchers have found that even 50 years after graduation, people can accurately recognize about 90% of their high school classmates from yearbook (How we remember something is how we think of it at the time ) photographs •BahStudies show in the brain there’s increased activity in the lower partst of this information had probably not been accessed for years before the experiment. of your frontal lobe and the inner part of the temporal lobe when KEVIN MAZUR/WIREIMAGE/GETTY IMAGES The Role of the Hippocampus as Indexding. The amount of activity in each of the Where is long-term memory located in the brain? The clues to answering this question brain regions during encoding is directly related to weather people come from patienlater remember an item. The more activity the more likely one wille same ability to encode information into long-term memory. In 1953, a 27-year-old man, remember an item. known then by the initials HM, suffered from intractable epilepsy (Scoville & Milner, 1957). In a desperate attempt to stop the seizures, HM’s doctors removed parts of his tem- poral lobes, including the hippocampus and some surrounding regions ( FIGURE 6.9 the operation, HMa. Semantic judgments- think of the meaning of the wordd perform well on intelligence tests—but he could not remember anything that happened to a the operation. HM could repeat a telephone number with no difficulty, suggesting that his short-term memory store was just fine (Corkin, 1984, 2002; Hilts, 1995; Squire, 2009). But after information left the short-term store, it was gone forever. For example, he would b. Rhyme judgments-think of the sound of the words c. Visual judgments-think about the appearance of the word • The study’s conclusion found participants that used elaborate encoding with semantic judgments could remember more words then other encoding. Thinking about the word’s meaning results in deeper processing and better memory which is why we can easily remember 20 experiences and not a string of numbers, we elaborately encode our own experiences without even trying. 2. Visual Imagery Encoding- the process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures • EX: If you need to remember to buy coke at the store, you imagine your whole bedroom flooded in Coke, when you go to the store you could take a “mental walk” around your apartment and “look” into your bedroom to remember the items you need. Visual encoding can substantially improve memory, it works so well because of 2 Reasons: a. It does the same thing as elaborative encoding, you relate incoming information to knowledge already in your memory b. When you use visual imagery to encode, you end up with 2 different mental place holders. A visual one and a verbal one, which gives you more ways to remember Visual imagery encoding activates processing regions in the occipital lobe, which suggests people enlists the visual system when forming memories. 3. Organizational Encoding- the process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of item i. People can improve their recall of individual items by organizing them from a general category through intermediate down to specific examples ii. Relies on the upper surface of the left frontal lobe Example of Organizational Encoding Encoding of Survival-Related Information Encoding new information is critical to many aspects of everyday life—prospects for attaining your degree would be pretty slim without this ability—and the survival of our ancestors likely depended on encoding and later remembering such things as the source of food and water or where a predator appeared (Nairne & Pandeirada, 2008; Sherry & Schacter, 1987). Animals ▯ FIGURE 6.4 Organizing Words into a Hierarchy Birds Mammals Organizing words into conceptual groups and relating them to one another—such as in this example ofa hierarchy—makes Waterfowl Songbirds Horses Dogs Cats it easierto reconstruct the items from memory later(Boweret al., 1969). Keeping Duck Wren Arabian Collie Manx trackofthe 17items in this example can be Goose Sparrow Pinto Shepherd Siamese facilitated by remembering the hierarchical Swan Warbler Mustang Terrier Persian groupings they fall under. Finch Dachshund 4. Other types of encoding : Experimenters gave participants words to create hypothetical situations surrounding them -Survival encoding –use given words with the scenario of surviving -Moving encoding –use given words with the scenario of moving -Pleasantness encoding –think of the pleasantness of given words • Participants recalled more words in survival encoding, because it drawled on elaborative, visual, and organizational encoding also it was more emotional arousing then any other types of encoding STORAGE: 1.Sensory memory-holds sensory information for a few second • Study: Sperling, 1960- (Iconic Memory test) : Used an experiment to demonstrate that although iconic memory stores the whole grid, the information fades away too quickly for a person to recall everything Because we have more than 1 sense we have more than one kind of sensory memory: • Iconic memory – fast decaying visual information, lasts usually about ½ sec to a sec • Echoic memory-fast-decaying store of auditory information, lasts about 5 seconds 2.Short-Term Memory- holds non-sensory information about 15-20 seconds Rehearsal – is the process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it • Short-term memory is limited in how long and how much information it can hold, it can hold about 7 meaningful things at one • A way to increase storage is Chunking – combing small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks. o Ex: Waitresses who use organizational encoding to organize customers orders into groups are essentially chunking the information, giving themselves less to remember 2b. Working Memory-active maintenance of information in short-term storage Ex: If your playing chess working memory includes visual representation, mental manipulation, and the awareness of the flow of information • Damage to the verbal subsystem of working memory makes you not only have problems with remembering numbers but also with learning novel words • It takes part in regions within the frontal lobe that are important for controlling and manipulating information on a wide range of cognitive tasks 3. Long-Term Memory- holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years. Has no known capacity limits • Hippocampus of the brain is important for putting new information in long term store, although it is important when a new memory is formed it may become less important as the memory ages • Case study: HM suffered from intractable epilepsy, and the doctors removed his parts of his temporal lobes, including the hippocampus, he could function well, understand language etc. but he couldn’t remember anything that happened after the operation, the fact that HM had worst anterograde amnesia than retrograde suggests the hippocampal is not the site for long-term memory • Anterograde amnesia-the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store • Retrograde amnesia- the inability to retrieve information from the short-term store into the long term store • Consolidation- a process by which memories become stable in the brain (The idea that the hippocampus becomes less important over time for maintaining memories) i. –Once consolidation occurs memories are more resistant to disruption ii. –How do memories become consolidated ? The act of recalling a memory, thinking about it, and talking about it with others probably contributes to consolidation, also sleep plays an important role • Reconsolidation- memories can again become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, thus, requiring them to be consolidated again o Study: animals are cued to retrieve a new memory that was acquired a day earlier, giving the animal a drug (or an electrical shock) that prevents initial consolidation will cause for- getting Critically, if the animal is not actively retrieving the memory, the same drug (or shock) has no effect when given a day after initial encoding. o Appears that each time memories are retrieved, they become vulnerable to disruption and have to be reconsolidated. o (Real life: This can be important by trying to remove patients traumatic experience by injecting a drug while the memory is held in mind ) RETRIEVAL: 1.Retrieval cue- external information that is associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind. (One of the best ways to retrieve information inside your head is to encounter information outside your head that is somehow connected to it.) • Study: Tulving & Pearlstone – gave a group of participants words, once sure participants emptied their minds, they gave them retrieval clues (furniture) and the participants that were sure they couldn’t remember the words did -Shows: information is sometimes available in memory even when it is momentarily inaccessible and that retrieval cues help us bring inaccessible information to mind 2.Encoding Specificity principle-(Environment) retrieval cues can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which information was initially encoded Example: Experiment with divers, showed that divers remember better when tested in the environment they learned (water or land) 3.State-dependent retrieval- (Emotion) tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding or retrieval (Which is why it is so hard to “look on the bright side” when you are feeling low ) • Example: Drunk studying for a test then taking a test while in the same state could actually result in higher grade then if taking the test sober • Being in a good mood affects patterns of electrical activity in parts of the brain responsible for semantic processing, suggesting that mood has a direct influence on semantic encoding. If the person’s state at the time of retrieval matches the person’s state at the time of encoding, the state itself serves as a retrieval cue 4.Transfer-appropriate processing- memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding context of the situation match -Retrieving information from memory has different effects than studying it • Study: one group studied them and one group was gave retrieval cues, as the time between recalling the word increased, (such as furniture for chair) the group with the retrieval cues remember more words • Real life: students should spend more time testing themselves on the to-be-learned material rather than simply studying it over and over. 5.Retrieval- Induced forgetting- Process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items • Ex: When witnesses to a staged crime are questioned about some details of the crime scene, their ability to later recall related details that they were not asked about is impaired compared with witnesses who were not questioned at all initially • -(Real life: initial interviews with eyewitnesses should be as complete as possible in order to avoid potential retrieval-induced forgetting of significant details that are not probed during an interview) • regions within the frontal lobe Trying to recall an incident and successfully recalling one are fundamental different process that occur in different parts of the brain The fact that people can be changed by past experiences without having any aware- ness of those experiences suggests that there must be at least two different classes of memory ( FIGURE 6.13). Explicit memory occurs when people consciously or intention- ally retrieve past experiences. Recalling last summer’s vacation, incidents from a novel you just read, or facts you studied for a test all involve explicit memory. Indeed, any- ti•e Regions in the frontal lobe show heightened activity when peoplebout an explicit memory. Implicit memory occurs when past experiences inﬂuence later behavior and performance, even though people are not trying to recollect them and are not aware that they are remembering them (Graf & Schacter, 1985; Schacter, 1987). Implicit memories are • Psychologist believe it’s because of the mental effort people put not cforth when the struggle to think up the past eventd” by our actions. Greg’s persis- tent sadness after his father’s death, even though he had no conscious knowledge of the event, is an example of implicit memory.nce tends to be So is HM’s improved performance on a track-mpal region What type of memory is in• tSounds are accompanied by activity in the auditory cortex (upper doingpart of the temporal lobe)e a bike or tie your it when you just “know shoelaces or play guitar: You may know how ? how” to do something? to do these things, but you probably can’t de- (Occipital lobe) scribe how to do them. Such knowledge reflects a particular kind of implicit memory c. Clcalled procedural memory, which refers to the gradual acquisition of skills as a result ofi. Explicit Memory- Occurs when people consciously or intentionally One of the hallmarks of procedural memory is that the things you remember are retrieve pat experiences automatically translated into actions. Sometimes you can explain how it is done (“Put one finger on the third fret of the E string, one finger . . .”) and sometimes you can’t (“Get on the bike and . . . well, uh . . . just balance”). The fact that people who have amiii.Episodic Memory- the collection of past personal experiences thatal struc- turesoccurred at a particular timethese patients may be necessary for explicit memory, but they aren’t needed for implicit procedural memory. In fact, it appears that brain regions outside the hippocampal area (including areas in the motor cortex) are in- behavior and performance, even though people are not trying to volved in procedural memory. Chapter 7 discusses this evidence further, where you will also see that procedural memory is crucial for learning various kinds of motor, pev. Procedural Memory- The gradual acquisition of skills as a result of Not all implicit memories are procedural or “how to” memories. For example, in practice or “knowing how” to do things onvi.Priming- Enhances ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word ors, including items such asavocado, mystery, climate, octopus,and assassin (Tulving, Schacter, & Stark, 1982). Later, explicit memory was tested by showing participants some of these words d. ▯ FIGURE 6.13 Multiple Forms of Memory Explicit and implicit Long-term memories are distinct from each other.Thus, a memory person with amnesia may lose explicit memory yet display implicit memory formaterial that she orhe cannot consciously recall learning. Explicit memory Implicit memory With conscious Without conscious recall recall Priming Semantic memory Episodic memory Procedural memory Enhanced Facts and Personally Motor and identification of general knowledge experienced events cognitive skills objects or words Implicit Memory Memories aren’t recalled but their presence is implied • Greg, a patient with tumor in his brain, that caused lost of memories of day to day events. Yet, he became sad after he was told his dad was dead even though he couldn’t even remember his dad was dead Procedural memory- Greg’s ability to play the bike or tie a shoe • things you remember are translated into actions, sometimes you can explain them(tying a shoe) but sometimes you can’t (walking) • People who have amnesia can acquire new memory suggests that the hippocampal structure may not be necessary for implicit procedural memory • the areas outside the hippocampal( + areas in the motor cortex) involve procedural memory e. Priming- People showed priming for study words even when they failed to consciously remember that they had seen them earlier • Study: Fragmented drawing test was given 17 years after the presentation of the study list. Some people didn’t even remember joining the study, but when primed they remembered • shows it’s implicit and that it can last for very long time • Doesn’t require hippocampal structures • associated with reduced activity in various regions of the cortex • Perceptual priming – reflects implicit memory for the sensory features of an item -Primarily on the regions toward the back of the brain (such as visual cortex) • Conceptual priming- reflects implicit memory for the meaning of a word or how you would use an object -Depends more on regions toward the front of the brain (such as the frontal lobes) • (Some evidence suggest perceptual is associated with the right central hemisphere + conceptual with the left hemisphere) Explicit Memory “I remember…” Semantic memory- hippocampus ISN’T necessary for acquiring new semantic memories • Ex: Why do we celebrate the 4 th of July? Episodic Memory- “Mental time travel” projecting ourselves into the past and revisiting events that has happened to us th • Ex: When was your favorite 4 of July ? • Uses the Hippocampus • Difficulties imagining new experiences such as sunbathing on a sandy beach • Rely heavily on episodic memory to envision the future • Flexible system that allows us to recombine elements of past experiences in new ways, so that we can mentally “try out” different versions of what might happen Do animals have Episodic Memory ? • Food-storing scrub jars act as though they can recall what type of food they’ve stored (worm or a peanut) • They also act as they for the future • But since animals can’t talk it’s probably unlikely we will have a definite answer 1/20 Lecture Notes 1/24/16 3:30 AM Visual sensory memory-Large capacity but brief (The Sperling Pardigm) Echoic sensory memory - Auditory sensory memory (2-4 secs) Tactile and taste memory is a lot harder to study Sensation-when it comes in from the external world Attention-pay attention to sensory memory Short term memory – relatively small capacity about 5-9 individual things (about 7 chunks) Lasts (15-30 secs) Working memory is also another kind of short-term memory Repetition and rehearsal keeps it in the long term memory Long term memory –unlimited capacity, potential forever You put things from the long term memory into the short term memory by encoding Encoding – process of making more and more connections, there are different types of encoding Retrieval – Long term memory that goes into your short term memory 3- box model for memory pages 228 When learning new information sleep consolidates memory Long term memory Explicit Memory that your aware of (Declarative memory) Semantic knowledge- Knowledge of facts Episodic-knowledge of things that has happened to you personally Professor Karpinski brought up the question about how much can we actually remember of episodic memory, he gave an example of him remembering his first day of school and the bus, but when he saw a photo album at his parents house he realized that the bus was never a episodic memory he had, it was a semantic memory, he probably at one point seen the photo of him going to school and forgot seeing it then in return processing the image as an episodic memory Amnesia – can’t remember Retrograde amnesia – memories are stores but you can’t access them, you loss them Anterograde – inability to encode new memories Episodic is only possible if an entity has a self, you can forget episodic memory but you can remember the context – dependent + learning
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