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PSY 350 week 2

by: Olivia Lee

PSY 350 week 2 PSY 35000 - 002

Olivia Lee
GPA 3.65

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About this Document

lecture 3 and 4
Abnormal Psychology
David Rollock
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia Lee on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 35000 - 002 at Purdue University taught by David Rollock in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 01/24/16
Chapter 2: An Integrative Approach Class #4 th January 20 , 2016 What causes Abnormal Behavior? • Jane Doe is a 25 year-old single female. She washes her hands approximately 25-35 times per day, for 4 minutes at a time. She has intrusive thoughts about germs, and is often afraid that she has or will contract Avian Flu. She wears a mask in public, and uses Lysol wipes before touching anything. She no longer eats meat; does not shake hands with others. • Is this abnormal behavior? Why? The Case of Ms. Doe • What happened to cause this? • Possible contributing factors: – Great grandmother has obsessive-compulsive disorder – Mother was extremely clean and worried about illness – Friend recently became very sick – Under a lot of stress at home – Outbreak of Avian flu elsewhere reported in the news • Probably no single pathway can account for this behavior (and many that we will study) – Requires multidimensional models Multidimensional Integrative Approach • Biological Influences – Genetics – Neuroscience • Psychological Influences – Behavior – Cognition – Learning • Emotional Influences • Social Influences • Developmental Influences Basic Genetics • Dominant versus Recessive Genes – Is Psychopathology inherited this way? • Polygenetic influence 6 Genes and Behavior • Human Behavior Genetics – Evaluates the genetic components of individual differences regarding behaviors and traits – Heritability (0 to 1) • Adoption Studies • Twin Studies – Monozygotic (MZ) – Dizygotic (DZ) – Compare MZ and DZ – What does it mean if a psychological trait is highly heritable? Psychopathology & Genetics • Schizophrenia: – most “heritable” form of psychopathology – yet, if 1 identical twin has schizophrenia, odds of twin having it is less than 50% • Clearly, genetics alone is only a part of the cause • Genetic factors contribute to all disorders, but they are only a part of the explanation – causes itdisorders, we will never find “the gene” that Diathesis – Stress Model • Diathesis – Inherited vulnerability/susceptibility • Stress – Environmental factors 9 Social Influences on Brain Structure & Function • Insel et al. (1988) • Two groups of monkeys – environment (toys & food) and the other did notthe – Administered a benzodiazepine inverse agonist (i.e., burst of anxiety) – Monkeys with no control  reacted with panic – Monkeys with control  reacted with anger • Suggests that environment (psychosocial development) can dramatically affect how neurotransmitter systems develop and function Psychological Influences • Conditioning – What relationship do people learn between events? • Panic disorder • Learned Helplessness – Conditions with no control  give up • Overwhelming stress & anxiety  depression • Observational Learning – Monkeys watching fearful mothers • Prepared Learning – Phobias • Attentional biases & Unconscious processing Emotions • Fight or Flight response • Components of an emotion: – Eliciting stimulus/event (bear) – Physiological response (heart rate increase) – Thoughts (“Oh no!”) – Feeling (terror) – Behavior (escape) • Emotions motivate us to act – “Action tendency” • Adaptive functions – Emotion dysregulation features in many disorders – But emotions themselves are a good thing! Emotions • Emotion – Reaction to an event – Lasts minutes/hours • Mood – Persistent period of emotionality – “Mood Disorder” = problematic mood lasting for weeks/months • Affect – Momentary emotional tone – “You look sad right now” Social and Environmental Influences • Culture and Ethnicity – Parenting – Peer relationships – Personality – Perception of Support • All may influence in one way or another the development of psychopathology Cultural, Social, and Interpersonal Factors • Spider/snake phobias: F > M • Social phobia: F = M – Gender roles? • Alcoholism: M > F – Coping strategy? • Eating disorders: F > M – Cultural emphasis on being thin if female? • Social relationships = protective factor – Psychological and physical illness Multidimensional Perspective of Psychopathology • Multiple Causation – Is the rule, not the exception in explaining normal and abnormal behavior • Equifinality – Particular behavior or disorder may have a number of causes • Different paths can lead to the same place Neuroscience Contributions to Psychopathology • The Field of Neuroscience – The role of the nervous system in disease and behavior – Two main influences: • Role of neurotransmitters in psychopathology • Role of brain regions in psychopathology


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