ads 2250 chapter 1 and 2
ads 2250 chapter 1 and 2 ADA 2250
Popular in Drug Use: Per/Soc Impact
Popular in Department
This 59 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Williams on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ADA 2250 at Western Michigan University taught by Cheryl Wing in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
Reviews for ads 2250 chapter 1 and 2
I love that I can count on (Katelyn for top notch notes! Especially around test time...
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/24/16
NO USE, USE, ABUSE, DEPENDENCE NO USE If you chose not to use AOD you are not alone. Only 3% of the world population uses AOD. The truth is its everybody you know. Maybe its time to find a new support system USE Many people use AOD and do not experience any problems. AOD only plays a small role in their life and they are cautious about using to much. They are responsible. 1. Why do you think people start to use AOD? 2. Describe the behaviors of someone you believe is a social user. ABUSE DSM IS CLEAR! Abuse is simply when a person uses the substance despite suffering a negative consequence. It can also be; Regularly engaging in high risk situations/behaviors Failure to adequately fulfill major role obligations. DEPENDENCE SYMPTOMS Cravings, failed attempts, continued use despite problems, loss, loss of interest in other things, tolerance, time, withdrawal, effects daily life functioning, 19 year old LISA-Tolerance CHEMICAL DEPENDENCY IS PRIMARY It causes other problems, its chronic (it wont just disappear) DISCUSS DISEASE CONCEPT- DIABETES OR HEART PROBLEMS Its progressive, it gets worse over time, not better, early use it connected to dependency Its fatal It runs in family-DISCUSS GENETICS AND THE 3 FRIENDS, MARIJUANA DISCUSS A-MOTIVATIONAL SYNDROME DISCUSS THE BRAIN Marijuana kills energy, achievement and ambition. STAGES OF CHANGE 1. Pre-contemplation 2. contemplation 3. preparation 4. action 5. maintenance 6. relapse/lapse Staging vignettes page 42 A Stages of Change Therapy Manual. DENIAL Admitting you have a problem but do nothing to change, blame others, make excuses, anger at people who express concern, distance self from others or refuse to talk about it, insist they have no problem, saying they can stop when ever they want to, STAGES OF ADDICTION 1. Internal change Person experiences the high produced by certain objects or events Person experiences mood changes Addictive characteristics settle in STAGES OF ADDICTION-CONT. 2. Lifestyle change Addictive behavior begins Behavioral dependency begins to develop Life and relationships are arranged and guided by addictive logic STAGES OF CHANGE-CONT. 3. Life Breakdown Addictive personality is in total control Life begins to breakdown Coping and interactions with others is difficult and filled with stress. Chapter 1 Drug Use: An Overview Coor distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. T alking About Drug Use Our concern about the use of a substance depends on Who is using it, how much is being used, and when, where, and why it is being used or distribution without the prior written consent of1-2Graw-Hill Education.n General Principles of Drug Use Use is not abuse Most users of any given substance do not use it in ways that can be defined as abuse or dependence Every drug has multiple effects Although a user might seek only one effect, drugs work at multiple sites in the brain and other organs Amount matters Larger doses, more frequent doses, or faster onset of effects can produce different effects compared to small doses or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill 1-3cation.n General Principles of Drug Use User’s history and expectations affect drug- related effects An experienced user may experience different effects compared to an inexperienced user Expectations may make a drug effect more or less likely to occur Drugs are not good or bad Drugs are chemicals on a shelf that are inactive until they enter the body Blaming the substance ignores all the factors that may lead to abuse or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill E1-4ation.n Important T erms Drug Any substance, natural or artificial, other than food, that by its chemical nature alters structure or function in a living organism Illicit drug A drug that is unlawful to possess or use Deviant drug use Drug use that is not common within a social group and is disapproved of by the majority Drug misuse Use of drugs or chemicals in greater amounts than, or for purposes other than, those prescribed by a doctor or distribution without the prior written consent of McGra1-5ill Education.n Important T erms Drug abuse Substance use in a manner, an amount, or in situations such that it causes social, occupational, psychological, or physical problems Drug dependence A more precise term than addiction A state in which an individual uses a drug so frequently or consistently that it would be difficult for the person to stop May or may not be physiological Defined as a behavioral disorder or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-1-6l Education.n Have Things Really Changed? Drug use is not new Throughout history, drugs have been used for: Enhancing spiritual experiences Major economic roles Treatment for illnesses Developments in the past century Rise of legal pharmaceuticals for a variety of purposes Vaccines, birth control, mental health treatments Rise of the “war on drugs” or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill1-7ucation.n Extent of Drug Use Not easy to get accurate and complete information on: Number of drug users How much of an illicit drug is imported and sold Usage of legal drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, and prescription drugs Nevertheless, we do get some information from survey questionnaires Benefits: easy to use, inexpensive, efficient Drawbacks: Bias in student population (e.g., dropouts not counted) Potential inaccuracy of self-reports (among both users and non-users) or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill1-8ucation.n Populations of Users Wide range of rates and amounts of use Even within a substance-using population This is true of all drugs of abuse This range of users has important implications for: Prevention efforts Treatment efforts Law enforcement The nature of dependence or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill 1-9cation.n Trends in Drug Use Survey: Monitoring the Future Project (MTF) Gathers data from students 8 –12 grade and college Conducted annually for almost 40 years Types of data collected Prevalence of drug use Perceived risk and availability of various drugs Shows trends over time or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill E1-10tion.n Monitoring the Future Source: Monitoring the Future Study, The University of Michigan. 1-11 Trends in Drug Use Survey: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Gathers data from U.S. households (not just students) Face-to-face interviews Ages 12 and above Conducted annually for over 40 years Types of data collected Prevalence of drug use Frequency of drug use Shows trends over time or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-1-12 Education.n NSDUH Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health. 1-13 NSDUH Source: National Survey on Drug 1-14and Health. National Surveys Data from MTF and NSDUH can be examined together Finding similar patterns in two different studies, using different sampling techniques: A stronger indication that these trends are real and reflect broad changes in American society over time or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw1-15l Education.n Correlates of Drug Use Correlate A variable that is statistically related to another variable, such as drug use Important: Correlates are not causes Risk factors for adolescent drug use include: Having friends who use drugs Engaging in antisocial activities Protective factors include: Perception of strong sanctions against use Having parents as social support or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill1-16cation.n Correlates of Drug Use Gender Example: Men use more drugs than women Race and ethnicity African Americansre more likely to drink alcohol than Level of education Example: College graduates are less likely to smoke tobacco than high school graduates Personality variables Example: “Impulsive” individuals may use drugs at a higher rate Genetics Example: Genetics may play a role in who will develop a substance use disorder or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-H1-17Education.n Antecedents of Drug Use Antecedent A factor that occurs before an event such as the initiation of drug use Not necessarily causes of drug use Examples of antecedents Aggressiveness Conduct problems Poor academic performance Attachment to a drug-using peer group Parental and community norms that support drug use or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hil1-18ucation.n Gateway Substances Gateway One of the first drugs used by a typical drug user Alcohol and tobacco are sometimes considered gateway drugs Gateway substances may not be the cause of future drug use Gateway substances are perhaps best thought of as: Early indicators of a basic pattern of deviant behavior resulting from a variety of risk factors or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw1-19l Education.n Motives for Drug Use There are several influences of drug use Identification with a deviant subculture Rebelliousness Fads and cultural trends Reinforcing properties of drugs Desire to experience an altered state or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Ed1-20ion.n Influences on Drug Use Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No repro1-21ion Chapter 2 Drug Use as a Social Problem Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction T wo Categories of Problems Problems related to taking the drug risk of developing drug dependence risk of overdose Problems related to drug use as deviant behavior expenses associated with drug prevention and treatment Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserve2-2No reproduction Changes in U.S. Drug Laws U.S. changed from a laissez-faire attitude (1800s) to one of tight drug restrictions Why? Three main concerns Toxicity dangerous chemicals? Dependence habit-forming compounds? Crime drug users become dangerous? Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. N2-3eproduction Drug-Related T oxicity Toxic poisonous, deadly, or dangerous Physiological versus Behavioral toxicity Acute versus Chronic toxicity Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserv2-4 No reproduction Physiological T oxicity Acute Prescription painkiller overdose (the user stops breathing) Chronic High blood pressure Heart disease Lung cancer Cirrhosis Chronic physiological toxicity (cirrhosis) Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. 2-5reproduction Behavioral T oxicity Acute “Drunk driving” Intoxication that dangerously impairs behavioral functioning Chronic Deleterious lifestyle changes Strain on interpersonal relationships Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. N2-6eproduction Drug Abuse Warning Network A system for collecting data on drug-related emergency room visits Data collected at some U.S. metropolitan hospitals DAWN collects data on: Illicit drugs Misuse of legal prescription and OTC drugs Does not determine whether drugs caused the ER visit Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. 2-7reproduction DAWN T oxicity Data ER Visits 1. Alcohol-in-combination 2. Cocaine 3. Prescription Opioids 4. Marijuana 5. Benzodiazepines 6. Heroin 7. Methamphetamine 8. Antidepressants 9. PCP 10. Antipsychotics Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved2-8o reproduction Drug Abuse Warning Network Does DAWN tell us how dangerous a drug is? Data are simply number of mentions in total ER visits What does DAWN not tell us? Relative danger of a drug How many problems as a proportion of total drug users? Cause of ER visit Drugs are mentioned in every case regardless of the cause of the accident Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No re2-9duction Blood-Borne Diseases Specific toxicity for users who inject drugs Not due to the action of drug itself Sharing needles passes infectious agents directly into bloodstream AIDS, HIV infection, and hepatitis B and C Syringe exchange programs Example of harm reduction Funded by some local governments Lowers rate of infection Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No 2-10oduction Problematic Drug Use What is the definition of “addiction”? Often difficult to define Does it matter? What drug is ingested? How much time is spent on drug-taking? How much drug is ingested? When does drug use go from “recreational” to “problematic”? Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.2-11reproduction Substance Dependence Three basic processes that may occur with repeated drug use Tolerance Physical dependence Psychological dependence These processes can be defined and studied by researchers interested in understanding drug dependence Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reser2-12 No reproduction T olerance Diminished effect of the drug after repeated use Individual may need to use more of the drug to experience the desired effects The body develops ways to compensate for the chemical imbalance caused by the drug Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights2-13erved. No reproduction Physical Dependence Physical dependence is defined by the occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome If drug use is stopped suddenly, withdrawal symptoms occur, ranging from mild to severe Tolerance typically precedes physical dependence Physical dependence means the body has adapted to the presence of the drug Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights rese2-14. No reproduction Psychological Dependence Often characterized by: High frequency of drug use Craving for the drug Tendency to relapse after stopping use Behavioral psychology contextualizes psychological (or behavioral) dependence as: Drug-taking is reinforced by consequences (the drug effects) Research evidence: Laboratory animals will lever-press for injections of many drugs of abuse Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. N2-15production Changing Views of Dependence Early medical models (before 1960) True addiction involves physical dependence Key is treatment of withdrawal symptoms But what about drugs with no clear withdrawal symptoms? Positive reinforcement model (1960s) Drugs can reinforce behavior without physical dependence Psychological dependence–based on reinforcement–is increasingly viewed as the driving force behind repeated drug use Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No2-16roduction DSM-5: Substance Use Disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) Developed by the American Psychiatric Association Provides diagnostic criteria and definitions for multiple disorders Focuses on complex behavioral definitions Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No 2-17oduction DSM-5: Substance Use Disorders A problematic pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of eleven possible symptoms, occurring within a 12-month period Diagnosis is complex Nine of the possible symptoms are behavioral Two of the possible symptoms are physiological Note: physiological symptoms do not need to be present to receive the diagnosis Severity of the disorder Mild = 2–3 symptoms Moderate = 4–5 symptoms Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No rep2-18ction Is Dependence Caused by the Substance? Some drugs are more likely than others to lead to dependence Nicotine versus marijuana for example But many other non-drug factors influence risk of dependence Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserve2-19o reproduction Is Dependence Biological? Is dependence due to definable biochemical or physiological actions in the brain? Many studies investigating genetic, physiological, and/or biochemical markers: Data suggest physiological consequences of drug taking Data suggest a role genetic factors in developing dependence But specific genetic or other biological causes of dependence have not been determined Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserv2-20No reproduction Is there an Addictive Personality? No way to know if the drug or the drug use changes an individual’s personality Many other factors affect personality Sensation-seeking A personality characteristic statistically associated with early substance use and abuse Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. 2-21eproduction Is Dependence a Family Disorder? Alcohol dependence often exists within the framework of a dysfunctional family Evidence suggests that dysfunctional relationships play a role in dependence But there are several factors contributing to dependence Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reser2-22 No reproduction Is Substance Dependence a Disease? Founders of AA characterized alcohol dependence as a disease Others argue that dependence doesn’t have all the characteristics of a disease There are no tests to reveal the underlying cause Better to think of “disease” as an analogy for dependence? Biopsychosocial perspective: Dependence is related to dysfunctions of biology, personality, social interactions Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.2-23reproduction Does Drug Use Cause Crime? Issue 1: Drug use may change a person’s personality Little empirical evidence to support this Indicators of criminal or antisocial behavior precede drug use Issue 2: People under the influence may commit crimes Little evidence that illicit drugs cause criminal behavior Many studies link alcohol to violent crime Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.2-24reproduction Does Drug Use Cause Crime? Issue 3: Crimes may be carried out to obtain money for drugs Issue 4: Drug use itself is a crime Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reser2-25 No reproduction Why We Try to Regulate Drugs Legitimate social purpose We want to protect society from the dangers of some types of drug use However, some laws are not developed as part of a rationally devised plan May not be realistic or effective Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. 2-26eproduction
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'