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BSC 116 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archea

by: Paola Araque

BSC 116 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archea BSC 116

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Art > BSC 116 > BSC 116 Prokaryotes Bacteria and Archea
Paola Araque
GPA 3.29

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These notes cover the second lecture Dr. Cherry did in class Thursday, January 21, 2106.
Principles Biology II
Dr. Cherry
Class Notes
Principles of Biology II
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paola Araque on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Cherry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Art at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
Lecture 2  Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea   ● 3 Domains of Life:  ○ Prokaryotes: Bacteria & Archaea  ■ Bacteria & Archaea lack nuclear envelope, membrane enclosed  organelles.  ○ Eukaryotes: Eukarya  ■ Eukarya has nuclear envelope and membrane enclosed organelle.  ● Prokaryotes: Two domains sharing ancestral characters  ○ modern prokaryotes provides info about original life forms   ○ characteristics tell us about the evolutionary transition to eukaryotes.  ○ life on Earth 3.6­2.1 Bya  ● Prokaryotes Body Plan  ○ most abundant organisms  ■ total mass=10x total eukaryotic mass  ○ unknown number of species  ○ cell wall to keep shape  ■ composed of peptidoglycan​ in Bacteria  ■ polysaccharides and proteins in archaea  ○ Gram Stain: provides information about cell wall structure; stains purple or pink.   ○ 3 basic shapes:   ■ Spherical (cocci)  ■ Rod Shaped  ■ Spiral  ○ Gram positive: simple, with a lot of peptidoglycan (appears purple)  ○ Gram negative: complex, outer membrane with less peptidoglycan (appear pink)  ■ Lipopolysaccharides in outer membrane tend to be toxic and more  resistant to antibiotics  ● Prokaryotes: Attachment and Locomotion  ○ Structures to maintain position:  ■ capsule​: sticky coat of polysaccharides or proteins.   ■ fimbriae: attachment pili; protein containing spines  ○ Structures for motility:  ■ flagell (pull or push)  ■ taxis (moving in response to stimulus)  ○ Some bacteria form endospores  ■ resting stage that can remain dormant, but remain viable for centuries.   ● Prokaryotes: Cellular Organization  ○ “simpler” than eukaryotes, but perform same functions  ■ LACK​  compartmentalization and membrane bound organelles  ■ perform functions on folded membrane surfaces.   ■ Single, circular chromosome in cytoplasm  ● no nucleus, nucleoid region  ■ may have accessory DNA plasmids  ● replicate independent of chromosomes.   ● Asexual Reproduction: Binary Fission  ○ Rapid reproduction, mutation, genetic recombination promote genetic diversity in  prokaryotes.   ○ Rapid genome duplication and cell fission + large populations with rapid  reproduction= greater opportunity for mutation  ○ in bacterial populations, even very rare mutations are generally present, and  natural selection can act on them.  ● Recombination increases genetic variation:  ○ combining of DNA from 2 sources creates new genotypes  ○ Transformation: uptake of foregin DNA from environment.  ○ Transduction: viruses (phages) carry DNA from one cell to another.   ○ Conjugation: transfer of DNA between temporarily joined cells (one way transfer  in bacteria)...depends on location of F factor.   ○ Horizontal gene transfer recombination between species.   ● ***Recombination creates novel genomes on which evolution can act***  ● Genetic variationprokaryotes can result from:  ○ Conjugation and Transduction.   ● Prokaryotes: diverse nutritional and metabolic adaptations  ○ Autotrophs vs Heterotrophs  ○ inorganic C sources vs organic C sources  ○ Phototrophs​ vs.Chemotrophs  ○ energy from light vs. chemical bonds.   ● Photoautotroph:  ○ energy source: light  ● Chemoautotroph:  ○ energy source: inorganic chemicals  ● Photoheterotroph:   ○ energy source: light  ● Chemoheterotroph:  ○ energy source: organic compounds  ● Some Require Oxygen, Some Don’t  ○ obligate aerobes​ require O2 for aerobic respiration  ○ obligate anaerobes: require no O2   ■ fermentation/glycolys​ no Krebs cycle  ■ anaerobic respiration: terminal electron acceptors other than O2.   ○ facultative anaerobes use either method.   ● Diversity of Bacteria:  ○ 5 major clades (cyanobacteria, spirochetes, chlamydias, proteobacteria)   ○   ○ all modes of nutrition and metabolism represented.   ○ most lineagesGram­negative​ (cyanobacteria, spirochetes, chlamydias,  proteobacteria)   ● Diversity of Archaea:  ○ 4 major clades (Korarcheotes, Euryarchaeotes, Crenarchaeotes, Nanoarchaeotes)  ○ extremophiles:  ■ halophiles​: require high salt  ■ thermophiles​: require high temperatures.   ○ methanogens: use CO2 and H2; create methane  ■ obligate anaerobes.   ● Prokaryotes play important roles in nutrient cycling  ○ decomposers: (Chemoheterotrophic)  ■ release C & N to environment  ○ photosynthesis: (photoautotrophic)  ■ fix C, produce O2  ○ nitrogen fixation (ex. cyanobacteria)  ■ can convert atmospheric N2 into NH2  ■ can then be used by other organisms  ○ Ecosystems depend on prokaryotes to recycle chemical elements between living  and nonliving components of the environment.   ● Other important ecological interactions, especially with humans.   ● Symbiotic associations:  ○ mutualism, commensalism, parasitism  ● Parasitism: pathogens  ○ Bacteria only (not Archaea)  ■ cholera  ■ tuberculosis  ■ botulism  ■ food poisoning   ■ Lyme disease  ○ Endotoxic (lipopolysaccharides of outer membrane) vs. exotoxic (secreted  proteins)  ● R Plasmids and Antibiotic Resistance  ○ Antibiotic: target prokaryote traits.  ■ Peptidoglycan cell wall not found in eukaryotes  ● targeted by penicillin  ● effective for gram­positive bacteria  ■ Ribosomes: use different proteins than eukaryotes  ● targeted by tetracycline  ■ Gram­negative bacteria tend to be more resistant to antibiotics: outer  membrane impedes entry of drugs  ○ Use of antibiotics= strong selection for resistance  ■ mutation can reduce effectiveness; change target of antibiotic  ■ R Plasmids (resistance plasmids): have genes for enzymes that destroy  antibiotics.   ● increasingly common due to selection.   ● Some beneficial uses of bacteria:  ○ culture for food: cheese and yogurt  ○ bioremediation​: using bacteria to break down sewage, chemical spills,etc.  ○ genetic engineering: use cellular machinery to make chemicals we can use  (vitamins, antibiotics, etc)  ● Diverse microbes that are pretty much everywhere.  ○ reproducing by conjugation, transduction, transformation.   ○ performing important ecological roles (sometimes helping or hurting) 


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