FN-235 Nutrition For Health: Week 2 Notes
FN-235 Nutrition For Health: Week 2 Notes FN235
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dempsey Hankins on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FN235 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by Dr. Kimberly Pickerl in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Nutrition for Health in Biology at Southeast Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
FN 235 Nutrition for Health Week 2 Notes Continuation of Chapter 1 o Calorie—measure of food energy. It is the heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1˚ Celsius. There are two types of calories, “big” and “little”. “Big” calories are on the food labels. 1 Kilocalorie = 1 C = 1,000 calories o The measure of calories per gram in the macronutrients are: Carbs: 4 kcal/gram Fat: 9 kcal/gram Proteins: 4 kcal/gram Alcohol: 7 kcal/gram o Practice Problems: Arnold weighs 161 lbs. What is his weight in kg? 73.18 kg Stephanie is 5’10”. What is her height in cm? 177.8 cm 94 kg is how many lbs? 206.8 lbs A food has 20g of CHO, 5g of protein, and 4 g of fat. How many kcal are in this food? 20(4) + 5(4) + 4(9) = 136 kcal o Key Nutrition Concepts Table 1.7 Concept 1: Most naturally occurring foods are a mixture of nutrients. Concept 2: eating a variety of foods can help ensure the nutritional adequacy of a diet. Concept 3: There are no “good” or “bad” foods. There are nutrient-dense foods and empty calorie foods, however. Concept 4: enjoy all foods in moderation. Concept 5: for each nutrient, there is a range of safe intakes. Concept 6: Food is the best source of energy. It is the most reliable, economical and natural source of energy. Concept 7: There is no “one size fits all” approach. Personalized food guides can be made to accommodate individual needs. Concept 8: There is no one “miracle’’ food. Foods can cure deficiency diseases but not a broken bone. Concept 9: Malnutrition means over and undernutrition. Concept 10: Nutrition is a dynamic science. It is constantly evolving, and research is constantly being done. o Undernutrition is most dangerous for infants, children during the preschool years and women who are pregnant. o Supplements are NOT substitutes!!!!!! Vocabulary Food Insecurity—a concern about running out of food or not having enough money to buy more food. Physiological Dose—amount of a nutrient that is within the range of safe intake and enables the body to function optimally. Malnutrition—state of health that occurs when the body is improperly nourished. Megadose—generally defined as 10 times the recommended amount of a nutrient. Biotechnology—the use of living things—plants, animals, etc—to manufacture new products. Sustainable agriculture—faming technology that does not deplete natural resources or harm the environment while meeting the demand for food. Anecdotes—reports of personal experiences Treatment Group—the group in an experiment who is given the medicine. Control Group—the group in an experiment who isn’t given the medicine. They can be given a placebo or nothing at all. Placebo—fake treatment, such as a sham pill, injection, or medical procedure. Placebo Effect—response to a placebo Double-blind Survey—experimental design in which neither the participants nor the researchers are aware of each participant’s group assignment. Epidemiology—study of the occurrence, distribution and causes of health problems in populations. Case-control Study—study in which individuals who have a health condition are compared with individuals with similar characteristics who do not have the condition. Cohort Study—study that measures variables of a group of people over time. Correlation—relationship between two variables. Testimonial—personal endorsement of a product Pseudoscience--presentation of information masquerading as factual and obtained by scientific methods. Quackery-promotion of useless medical treatments Multivitamin/mineral—describes a dietary supplement that contains vitamins and minerals. Complementary and alternative medicine—variety of health care practices that are not accepted by the majority of conventional medical practitioners. In-vitro—test-tube experiments experimenting on small parts of a whole organism. In-viro—testing on the whole living organism, such as mice and other small animals. Retrospective—“looking back in time” this type of study looks back at people’s past experience and seeing what may have caused disease. Prospective—“looking into the future” this type of study follows the group into the future for contributing factors. Direct correlation— when 2 variables change in the same direction Inverse Correlation—when 2 variables move in the opposite direction. Chapter 2 o In the past, the nutrition was evaluating using intuition, common sense, conventional wisdom and anecdotes, but today, the scientific method is used to evaluate nutrition. o Experiments are conducted several different ways, but the two main ways are intervention and observation. Most human research is observational and is known as epidemiology. o Consumers are responsible for questioning the new research and information. Some of the questions that consumers should ask, and the red flags that they should look out for, are: Promises of quick fixes Scare tactics Personal attacks on reliable, known sources, Anecdotes/testimonies Vague scientific terms Too good to be true claims Disclaimers Based on a single study The “research” is done by the products own doctors/teams. o THANKS GUYS!!!
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