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ISS 220 Chpt 1 & 2 notes

by: Anne Koster

ISS 220 Chpt 1 & 2 notes ISS 220

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ISS 220 with J. Hefner. Chapter 1 and 2 notes from lecture and the reading.
J. Hefner
Class Notes
ISS, Hefner




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anne Koster on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 220 at Michigan State University taught by J. Hefner in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 213 views.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
ISS  220   J.  Hefner   Chapter  1.     1.   Evolution:  A  change  in  the  genetic  structure  of  a  population  from  one  generation  to  the   next.  The  term  is  also  frequently  used  to  refer  to  the  appearance  of  a  new  species.     2.   Adaption:  an  anatomical,  physiological,  or  behavioral  response  of  organisms  or   populations  to  the  environment.  Can  result  from  evolutionary  change.     3.   Microevolution:  small  genetic  changes  that  occur  within  species.     4.   Macroevolution:  Changes  that  occur  after  many  generations,  such  as  appearance  of  a   new  species.  (speciation.)   a.   Humans  have  never  gone  through  macroevolution;  they  are  one  species.     5.   Anthropology:  The  field  of  inquiry  that  studies  human  culture  and  evolutionary  aspects   of  human  biology.   a.   Includes  cultural  anthropology,  archeology,  linguistics,  and  physical   anthropology.   b.   A  powerful  way  of  explaining  human  adaptions.     6.   Hominines:  members  of  the  evolutionary  lineage  that  includes  us,  modern  Homo   Sapiens.   a.   Are  members  of  the  order  primates.  (apes,  monkeys,  lemurs.)     7.   Species:  A  group  of  organisms  that  can  interbreed  to  produce  fertile  offspring.   a.   Members  of  one  species  are  reproductively  isolated  from  members  of  all  other   species.     8.   Behavior:  anything  organisms  do  that  involves  action  in  response  to  internal  or  external   stimuli.   a.   The  response  of  an  individual,  group,  or  species  to  its  environment.   b.   Responses  may  or  may  not  be  deliberate,  and  aren’t  necessarily  the  result  of   conscious  decision  making.     9.   Culture:  all  aspects  of  human  adaption.   a.   Ex.  Technology,  traditions,  language,  religion,  and  social  roles.   b.   Culture  is  a  set  of  learned  behaviors,  transmitted  from  one  generation  to  the   next.     10.  Biocultural  evolution:  the  idea  that  biology  makes  culture  possible  and  that  developing   culture  further  influences  the  direction  of  biological  evolution.   a.   Overtime  biology  and  culture  interacted  in  such  a  way  that  humans  are  said  to   be  a  result  of  this.     11.  Worldview:  the  general  cultural  perspective  of  the  external  environments  shared  by  the   members  of  a  society  and  in  a  particular  way  that  distinguishes  that  culture  from  others.     12.  Cultural  anthropology:  study  of  the  global  patterns  of  belief  and  behavior  in  modern   and  historical  cultures.   a.   Begins  with  an  anthropology  interest  in  traditional  societies.     13.  Society:  a  group  of  people  who  share  a  common  culture.     14.  Adaptation:  Functional  responses  of  organisms  or  populations  to  the  environment,   results  from  evolutionary  change  and  as  a  result  of  natural  selection.     15.  Ethnographies:  detailed  and  descriptive  studies  of  human  societies.   a.   Basis  for  comparing  numerous  cultures  in  studies.     16.  Archeology:  study  of  earlier  cultures  and  life  ways  through  scientific  recovery,  analysis   and  interpretation  of  material  remains  of  artifacts  –  past  societies.   a.   Primary  data  are  the  artifacts  and  other  material  culture   b.   differ  from  anthropologists  in  the  way  that  they  emphasize  archeological  record   as  their  primary  data  source.   c.   Material  culture:  tools,  art  and  structures,  the  most  durable  aspects  of  culture.   d.   Lots  of  different  kinds  of  archeology  since  is  just  a  body  of  methods  –  so  broad.     17.  Linguistic  anthropologist:  study  of  human  speech  and  language.   i.   Ties  language  and  groups  of  languages  by  examining  similarities.     18.  Physical  anthropology:  study  of  human  biology  within  the  framework  of  evolution.   a.   Has  many  subfields.  (subfields  will  have  a  *  next  to  them.)     19.  *Paleoanthropology:  the  study  of  earlier  hominines  and  to  see  evolution  and  to  try  and   reconstruct  the  bones  into  a  creature.     20.  *Studies  of  human  variation:  examination  of  large  groups  and  how  they  respond   physiologically  to  environmentally  induced  stress.     21.  *Anthropometry:  measuring  the  human  body   a.   Identifying  human  variation  due  to  possible  adaptive  significance.   b.   Identifying  genetic  and  any  other  evolutionary  factors  that  produce  variation.     22.  *Genetics:  Genetic  mechanisms  The  study  of  gene  action  and  structure  and  the  patterns   of  inheritance  of  traits  from  parents  to  offspring.   a.   are  the  foundation  of  evolutionary  change.     23.  *Molecular  anthropology:  Sequencing  methods  and  cloning  are  frequently  used  to   identify  genes.     24.  DNA:  Double  stranded  molecule  that  contains  the  genetic  code  and  se  of  instructions   for  producing  bodily  functions  and  structures.   a.   Is  a  main  component  of  chromosomes.       25.  *Osteology:  Study  of  the  human  Skeleton.     26.  *Bio  archaeology:  the  study  of  skeletal  remains  from  archaeological  sites.     27.  *Paleopathology:  The  study  f  trauma  and  disease  in  archaeologically  derived  skeletons.   a.   Investigates  prevalence  of  trauma,  certain  infectious  diseases,  nutrition   deficiencies  and  any  condition  that  may  leave  evidence  in  the  bone.     28.  *Forensic  Anthropology:  application  of  anthropological  techniques  to  legal  issues.     29.  *Primatology:  The  study  of  nonhuman  living  primates     30.  Applied  Anthropology:  The  practical  application  of  anthropological  and  archaeological   theories  and  techniques.     31.  Medical  anthropology:  An  Applied  subfield  of  cultural  anthropology  that  explores  the   relationship  between  various  cultural  attributes  and  health  disease.     32.  Science:  A  body  of  knowledge  gained  through  observation  and  experimentation;  from   the  Latin  word  Scientia,  meaning  “knowledge.”     33.  Scientific  Method:  Science  is  a  process  of  explain  natural  phenomena  by  means  of   observation,  developing  explanations  or  hypothesis.   a.   There  is  an  objective,  empirical  (Relying  on  experiment  or  observation)  approach   to  gaining  information  through  the  systematic  and  explicit  techniques.   b.   Data  is  collected  so  that  it  can  be  studies  and  analyzed  quantitatively.   c.   Quantitatively:  pertaining  to  measurements  of  quantity  and  including  such   properties  as  size,  number  and  capacity.     34.  Hypothesis:  A  provisional  explanation  of  phenomenon   a.   Requires  verification  or  falsification  through  testing.     35.  Scientific  testing:  the  precise  repetition  of  an  experiment  or  expansion  of  observed  data   to  provide  verification.   a.   Procedure  by  which  hypothesis  and  theories  are  verified,  modified  and   discarded.   36.  Anthropological  perspective:  a  broad  perspective  used  to  help  us  understand  the   diversity  of  the  human  experience  within  the  context  of  behavioral  and  biological   continuity  with  other  species.   a.   By  learning  about  other  cultures  other  than  our  own  we  can  avoid  an   ethnocentric  view  of  other  cultures.   b.   Ethnocentric:  Viewing  other  cultures  rom  the  inherently  biased  perspective  of   one’s  own  culture.  Usually  leads  to  other  cultures  being  seen  as  inferior  to  one’s   own.     37.  Relativistic:  pertaining  to  relativism,  viewing  entities  as  they  relate  to  something  else.   a.   Cultural  relativism  is  the  view  that  cultures  have  merits  within  their  own   historical  and  environmental  contexts  and  should  first  be  understood  within   those  contexts.   38.  Why  do  anthropological  perspectives  matter?   a.   Offers  a  wider  appreciation  of  the  human  experience,  in  order  to  understand   humans  and  how  our  species  came  to  be.   b.   How  humans  differ  and  are  similar  to  other  animals.   c.   Understand  the  limits  and  potentials  od  humankind.   d.   Allows  us  to  understand  other  peoples  concerns  and  view  our  culture  from  a   broader  perspective.               Chapter  Questions:   What  do  all  the  the  subfields  of  physical  anthropology  have  in  common?   What  are  some  practical  uses  of  physical  anthropology?   What  are  some  non-­‐scientific  ways  of  understanding  the  world?   How  is  science  similar  to  and  different  from  there  other  forms  of  explanation?   Why  is  biocultural  perspective  important  to  understand  human  evolution?     ISS  220  J.  Hefner   Chapter  2  notes:   1.   Human  ancestors  evolved  from  a  species  that  lived  5  to  8  million  years  ago.   1.1.  This  ancient  species  was  the  LAST  common  ancestor  that  we  share  with  monkeys   and/or  chimpanzees.   1.2.  Humans  did  NOT  evolve  from  monkeys  or  chimpanzees.     2.   Evolution  is  a  theory,  one  that  has  been  supported  by  an  increasing  amount  of  genetic   evidence.     3.   Natural  Selection:  Refers  to  genetic  change  in  the  frequencies  of  certain  traits  in   populations  due  to  differential  reproductive  success  between  individuals.  This  is  the  most   critical  mechanism  of  evolutionary  change,  Charles  Darwin  articulated  this  first.   3.1.  Alfred  Russel  Wallace  independently  reached  the  same  conclusion,  the  basic   mechanics  of  the  evolutionary  process.     4.   Challenges  to  traditional  beliefs:  Aristotle  taught  that  the  sun  and  planets  existed  in  a  series   of  concentric  sphere  that  revolved  around  the  run,  where  Copernicus  challenged  the  idea   that  the  earth  was  the  center  of  the  sun,  Galileo’s  work  supported  the  idea  of  the  universe   being  a  place  of  motion.     5.   John  Ray,  developed  the  concept  of  species.     5.1.  He  recognized  that  groups  of  plants  and  animals  could  be  differentiated  from  other   groups  by  their  ability  to  mate  with  one  another  and  produce  offspring.   5.2.  He  placed  these  groups  of  reproductively  isolated  organisms  into  a  single  category,   species.     6.   Carolus  Linnaeus  developed  a  way  of  classifying  plants  and  animals  in  his  book  Systma   Naturae,  where  he  standardized  Ray’s  use  of  genus  and  species  terminology  and   established  the  system  binomial  nomenclature.  (genius  and  species,  i.e.  homo  sapiens.)   6.1.  He  also  added  class  and  order,  this  four  level  system  became  the  basis  for  taxonomy.   6.2.  Taxonomy:  classification  of  something.   6.2.1.   Domain  -­‐>  kingdom  -­‐>  phylum  -­‐>  class  -­‐>  order  -­‐>  family  -­‐>  genus  -­‐>  species     7.   Erasmus  Darwin:  Charles  Darwin’s  grand  father  who  greatly  impacted  Charles  and   potentially  some  of  his  work.     8.   Jean  Baptist  Lamarck:  developed  a  theory  to  explain  the  evolutionary  process,  inheritance   of  acquired  characteristics.     8.1.  Ex.  Giraffes  stretch  their  necks  to  get  leaves  that  are  higher,  so  their  young  will  inherit   this  long  neck.   8.2.  This  theory  is  incorrect.   8.3.  What  really  is  happening  –  as  told  by  Darwin  and  Wallace  –  The  environment  favored   these  giraffes  with  longer  necks  so  they  were  more  likely  to  have  offspring.  This  is   survival  of  the  fittest.     9.   George  Cuvier  explained  the  fossil  record  as  the  result  of  a  succession  of  catastrophism.     9.1.  Catastrophism  is  the  view  that  the  earths  geological  landscape  is  the  result  of  violent   cataclysmic  events.   9.2.  The  idea  was  that  evolution  is  a  sudden  process.     10.  Thomas  Malthus  wrote  an  essay  on  the  Principle  of  Population,  inspired  by  both  Charles   Darwin  and  Alfred  Wallace’s  independent  studies  of  natural  selection.   10.1.   Argued  for  limits  to  human  population  and  growth.   10.2.   Population  size  is  limited  by  the  availability  of  resources,  meaning  there  must  be   constant  competition  for  food  and  water.     11.  Charles  Lyell  published  Principle  of  Geology.     11.1.   The  theory  of  uniformitarianism  was  that  the  earths  features  are  the  result  of   long  term  processes  that  continue  to  operate  in  the  present  as  they  did  in  the  past.   11.2.   Evolution  needs  time.     12.  Charles  Darwin’s  ideas  were  formed  while  on  the  HMS  beagle  on  his  5-­‐year  voyage  as  a   naturalist.   12.1.   Here  he  recognized  that  reproduction  increased  variation.   12.2.   “favorable  variations  would  tend  to  be  preserved,  and  unfavorable  ones  tend  to   be  destroyed.”  –  meaning  those  with  favorable  qualities,  i.e.  giraffes  with  longer  necks,   tend  to  live  longer  because  they  can  reach  the  taller  trees.  They  then  reproduce  and   pass  on  their  genes  of  long  necks.   13.  Darwin’s  Galapagos  finches:   13.1.   Tree  finch  (wood  pecker  finch)   13.1.1.  Food:  insects   13.1.2.  Beak:  straight  and  stout   13.2.   Ground  finch  (aka  warbler  finch.)   13.2.1.  Food:  insects   13.2.2.  Beak:  slender     14.  Transmutation:  The  change  of  one  species  to  another.  The  term  evolution  did  not  assume   its  current  meaning  until  the  late  nineteenth  century.     15.  Alfred  Wallace  suggested  that  species  descended  from  other  species  and  new  species  were   influences  by  the  environment.     16.  Natural  selection:   16.1.   All  species  are  capable  of  producing  offspring  at  a  faster  rate  than  food  supplies   increase.   16.2.   There  is  a  biological  variation  between  all  species.   16.3.   Because  of  limited  resources  there  is  competition  among  individuals.   16.4.   Individuals  with  favorable  variations  have  an  advantage  over  those  who  do  not.     16.5.   The  environment  determines  whether  or  not  a  trait  is  beneficial.   16.6.   Traits  are  passed  down  to  the  next  generation.  Individuals  who  produce  more   offspring  have  greater  reproductive  success.   16.7.   Variations  accumulate  over  long  periods  of  time.   16.8.   Over  time  populations  respond  to  pressures  and  become  distinct  species.     17.  Geographical  isolation:  contributes  to  the  formation  of  new  species  as  individuals  begin  to   adapt  to  different  environments.  (ex.  Natural  barriers  such  as  oceans)     18.  Selective  pressures:  cause  distinct  species  to  develop.  (differential  ecological   circumstances.)     19.  Religion  and  Science:  they  concern  different  aspects  of  the  human  experience.  You  can   possibly  believe  in  both  at  the  same  time.     Chapter  questions:   •   Did  humans  evolve  from  monkeys?   •   If  humans  did  not  evolve  from  monkeys,  why  do  we  still  have  monkeys?   •   What  is  natural  selection?   •   What  are  selective  agents?   •   What  is  a  species?   •   Inheritance  of  acquired  traits,  was  this  true?  


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