PSY 310 Week 2 notes
PSY 310 Week 2 notes psy 310-03
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Poland on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psy 310-03 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Cornelius in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Behavior Modification in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Psychology 310 Week 2 of Notes▯ Ethical considerations:▯ ▯ Some think that it is unethical to control or change behavior. For example: It would be ▯ ▯ unethical if they will be injured physically or psychologically in the process. Also, it would ▯ ▯ be unethical if the person was unaware of your efforts to change their behavior. consent ▯ ▯ is needed.▯ ▯ It is unethical if any harm is done or if treatment is not in the best interest of the subject.▯ ▯ Guidelines:▯ ▯ Ethical guidelines are imposed by the APA, ABA, and ABCT▯ ▯ These guidelines control a therapist’s behavior▯ ▯ Some ethical standards that a therapist needs to meet are appropriate training, client ▯ ▯ must be an active participant, use of least restrictive alternative (environment that makes ▯ them as successful as possible while using the least amount of restriction), use of ▯ ▯ positive reinforcement over aversive control, individualized and contextually grounded, ▯ ▯ and take data into evaluation if the treatment is effective. ▯ ▯ ▯ These guidelines make sure that the professional is acting in an ethically sound manner.▯ ▯ Behavioral assessment: The collection and analysis of information in order to identify and describe behavior, identify the cause, select appropriate treatment, and evaluate the treatment outcomes.▯ ▯ Why do we collect data?▯ ▯ ▯ -Deﬁne target behavior and describe it▯ ▯ ▯ -Identify possible reinforcement and treatment▯ ▯ ▯ -Posting the data can be a prompt to engage in treatment (Ex: Posting food ▯ ▯ ▯ choices in an app such as “myﬁtnesspal” can make a person more prone to ▯ ▯ ▯ choosing healthy foods. this effect can wear off, though.)▯ ▯ ▯ -Seeing the data can sometimes change behavior (Ex: graphs, myﬁtnesspal…the ▯ ▯ feeling of being watched and being held accountable)▯ ▯ ▯ Goal in behavior assessment is to identify behavior, antecedent (anything present prior ▯ ▯ to behavior such as a person or environment), and consequences. The goal is not to ▯ ▯ identify underlying pathology.▯ ▯ ▯ Assessment: A sample of behavior and a function of past environmental experiences ▯ ▯ and current contingencies. Figures out behavioral deﬁcits and excesses. ▯ ▯ 4 Phases of assessment:▯ ▯ -Screening intake: clarify problem and determine if program is appropriate. (Ex: 2 year ▯ ▯ old throwing tantrum does not need treatment because that is developmentally normal ▯ ▯ for that age)▯ ▯ -Baseline: determine the rate of behavior currently prior to intervention and gather ▯ ▯ information from several sources.▯ ▯ -Treatment: the act of changing the behavior.▯ ▯ -Follow-up: check the effects of the treatment.▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Types of baseline assessments: ▯ ▯ -Indirect: questionnaires, data from others, and self-monitoring. Donohue (2007) and ▯ ▯ Matson & Bokjoli (2008) developed tests for this method. The issue is, people are not ▯ ▯ very good at self-monitoring.▯ ▯ ▯ -Direct: behavior is observed in the natural environment. You get better data this way, ▯ ▯ but this method is more costly, intrusive, time-consuming, and uncomfortable. ▯ ▯ ▯ We usually use a combination of the two for best results.▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Real-life example: Personal training. Indirect assessment: Ask height and weight, how ▯ ▯ many times they exercise per week, and what their diet is like. Direct Assessment: ▯ ▯ Physically test how many push-ups they are able to do, how fast they run a mile, and ▯ ▯ their body fat percentage.▯ ▯ Operational deﬁnition: A speciﬁc, exact, clear, and concise deﬁnition that everyone recording the data must follow. Should specify what counts and what does not count as a behavior. (Ex: what counts as aggressive behavior?)▯ ▯ Types of data:▯ ▯ This is the best method when behaviors are discrete, short, and easily observable. ▯▯ ▯ ▯ Duration: How long the behavior lasts. (Ex: tantrums, exercise)▯ ▯ ▯ Intensity: The force of the behavior. (Ex: Volume, force of a pitch)▯ ▯ ▯ Latency: time between occurrence of a stimulus and a response. (Ex: telling a kid to go ▯ ▯ put on their shoes, and they only get to doing so 30 minutes later)▯ ▯ ▯ Quality: difference in judgment of the topography. (Ex: How good was the ﬁgure-skating ▯ ▯ jump?)▯ ▯ Different ways to collect data:▯ ▯ Continuous: Record every instance of a behavior ▯ ▯ ▯ Interval: A speciﬁc block of time is divided into equal intervals of short duration ( such as ▯ ▯ 30 seconds)▯ ▯ ▯ Partial: Yes or no. (did the behavior happen in the 30 seconds?)▯ ▯ ▯ Whole: Behavior is recorded only if it lasts throughout the entire interval.▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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