Intro to Music Lit Week 2 notes
Intro to Music Lit Week 2 notes MUL2010
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Dr. Mikel Von
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chappy on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUL2010 at University of Florida taught by Frusco,Jeremy A in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music Literature in Music at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Week 2 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯1 Introduction to Music Literature ♪ WEEK 2 NOTES ♪ ▯ Main theme ♪ Texture • Monophonic/Monophony - single sound - single, unaccompanied melodic line ⁃ unison- multiple instruments or voices singing the same melodic line • Homophony/Homophonic - same sound - one main melody harmonized in chords ⁃ homorhythmic - all voices move together in same rhythms ⁃ melody and accompaniment - primary melody with underlying accompaniment • Polyphonic/Polyphony - many sounds - simultaneous performance of two or more melodic lines of melodic interest ⁃ imitation - melodic idea is presented by one performer, restated by another ⁃ strict imitation - each statement of melody is exactly the same, equal importance (rounds) ⁃ free imitation - melodic lines begin the same, but differ. ⁃ counterpoint (non imitative) - simultaneous performance of multiple discrete melodies combining to make a meaningful whole (Carol of the bells) ⁃ “contrapunal texture” ⁃ common in baroque period • Heterophony - not common in western music, more common in native american and eastern music ⁃ repeating while being heard - same melody w time delay • textures can change within a piece • Farandole from L’Arlesiene by Bizet ⁃ Two Main themes ⁃ Marchlike ⁃ marcato, lots of snare and crash ⁃ Dance theme ⁃ violin heavy, glissandos ⁃ different manifestations of the textures Intro to the Medieval Period c. 450-1450 CE • Fall of roman empire; roman catholic church still reigned ⁃ church commissioned most music ⁃ boys raised in church • Expansion of texture (monophonic to polyphony) • rhythm and meter developed • Gregorian Chants - earliest documented form of western music y r o t s ⁃i H ⁃ Pope Gregory r. 590 - 604 did not create Gregorian Chant but was the leader of the religion at the time ⁃ many composers remain anonymous ⁃ official music of Roman Catholic Church up until 1960’s Week 2 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯2 ⁃ Structure ⁃ Single melody with no harmony/accompaniment, monophonic, using sacred latin text ⁃ rhythmically flexible - non metric bc follows inflection of text. musical elaboration on significant text. ⁃ more important words are expanded + melismatic (more than one note per syllable) ⁃ sound is calm, ethereal ⁃ conjunct (stepwise), narrow range of pitches ⁃ notation showed melodic contour and uniformity and became norm outside of oral tradition • Chants - categorized by how text is set ⁃ Syllabic - one note per syllable of text ⁃ Neumatic - small groups of notes per syllable ⁃ Melismatic - long groups of notes per syllable ⁃ usually used in more important words ⁃ Alleluia: Vidimus Stellam ⁃ last syllable of alleluia melismatic ⁃ melody climaxes on Dominum (lord)—most important word ⁃ Organum - 700-900 CE, second melodic line added monophonic to polyphonic ⁃ initially improvised, later notated ⁃ similar/identical melodic contour w different pitch level ⁃ Organum evolution 900-1200 the added melody becomes more independent ⁃ movement in opposite directions ⁃ c. 1100 more rhythmic freedom, one line has a faster pace (obscures original chant) Late Medieval • Notre Dame School formed in 1163 in paris, the capital of polyphonic music ⁃ Leonin and Perotin: choirmasters/composers most important to the Notre Dame School ⁃ created measured rhythm : definite time values and meter ⁃ precise notation of pitches and rhythms ⁃ limited rhythmic patterns - simple complex style (groups of 3) • 14th century ⁃ social turmoil ⁃ sensuality above divinity (human experience above holy experience) ⁃ secular music had no basis in chant ⁃ new system of music notation ⁃ beats of two or three ⁃ syncopation ⁃ Ars nova (new art) • Guillaume de Machaut (c. 1300 - 1377) ⁃ offered music to noble patrons ⁃ secular and sacred works usually for four musicians ⁃ Notre Dame Mass Week 2 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯3 ⁃ mass ordinary: church texts that remain consistent for most of the year e i r ⁃y K ⁃ Gloria ⁃ Credo ⁃ Sanctus ⁃ Agnus Dei ⁃ consistently set throughout history ⁃ 1360’s, 4 voice parts ⁃ Agnus dei- prayer for mercy and peace ⁃ triple meter; rhythm complex for upper voices, lower voices slower rhythmic values ⁃ based on gregorian chants ⁃ variety of harmonies - open chords, stark dissonance, triads ⁃ three sections, divided by text Countermelody ♪ “Taking good notes” • Music Notation ⁃ Graphic representation of sound ⁃ symbolic language ⁃ set of detailed instructions for reproducing specific musical events • Efficiency ⁃ 9/8 w quarter note A ⁃ “establish a regular beat w a triple (meter of three) w each beat divided into thirds (compound subdivision). perform the pitch A5 (440Hz) for a duration equal to 2/3 of the beat,” - easier to just show what you want to do in notation than try to explain it ⁃ Music is far too complicated to explain to every single person in a small amount of time. Knowing how to read music is essential—music literacy improves understanding and artistry ⁃ Easier to just play the music than teach by rote • Does notation count as music? ⁃ is it instructions or is it the physical art form? must it be sound to be music? how to produce the music. ⁃ different levels of detail ⁃ different levels of ability • Notation - where did it come from? ⁃ Medieval Christian Church ⁃ necessity for external memory, standardization, pedagogical tools ⁃ much like note taking - take simple oral tradition melodies, write down to be reproduced ⁃ eventually evolved to modern notation w rhythmic and melodic distinction • Notation as a tool ⁃ exploited to its fullest potential & new applications beyond original intention. Rarely anticipated at outset. Week 2 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯4 ⁃ sheet music to MIDI files and graphic garage band • What did they do before 1000 CE? ⁃ rough estimates of what music sounded like from Ancient Egyptian and Greek and Japanese Empirical culture. ⁃ precisely traditional music. • Oral tradition ⁃ did not stop with the notation of music ⁃ quite common in music around the world ⁃ happy birthday ⁃ Jazz - changes w individual - oral tradition based on performer ⁃ Louis Armstrong vs. Sinatra - how do their styles differ? ▯ Oral Notated • Performance • Composition • shorter, less complex • longer, more complex • can be reinterpreted • can’t stray from notes on the page • improvisation • preplanned • repetition • dramatic contour • individualisation • standardization • performance practice • analytical + theoretical teaching • EXAMPLE: Jazz improvisation and • EXAMPLE: difference between classical musicians instrumentalists ⁃ taught to sound different from one ⁃ taught to blend another • Complexity ⁃ Mahler’s Third Symphony ⁃ 90 minutes long ⁃ six movements ⁃ large, symphonic orchestra plus choral and folk instruments ⁃ notation makes complex musical works possible • Theory and Analysis - aspects of notated music readily perceived, analyzed, or created in written form • Cantus Firmus • Augenmusik • Serial Music • Retrograde and inverted themes - Retrograde: melody is played backwards - reflected over y axis - Inversion: as if melody was reflected over the x axis (ex. well-tempered clavier) • Conclusion ⁃ history of western music has been a study in the notation and possibilities it creates since the middle ages ⁃ notation has created innovation in every style period ⁃ notation has changed musical/aesthetic culture of the west.