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Art As A World Phenomenon Notes

by: Katelyn Rinella

Art As A World Phenomenon Notes ARTH - 12001 - 002

Marketplace > Kent State University > Art History > ARTH - 12001 - 002 > Art As A World Phenomenon Notes
Katelyn Rinella
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About this Document

theses notes cover half of chapter 1
Maria E Campbell (P)
Class Notes





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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Rinella on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH - 12001 - 002 at Kent State University taught by Maria E Campbell (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see ART AS A WORLD PHENOMENON in Art History at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
Chapter 1.1 - art in two dimensions line and shape Who are the nacirema?  (Reading from last week) they are Americans Removed from contacts / looked from and outsiders personal bias can make the perfectly normal seem bizarre. Two dimensional art  elements of art  basic vocabulary art  line: fundamental element of art principles  grammar or set of rules an artist uses to organize design Two dimensional art - Flat - Height/width with no depth - drawing, painting, graphic design printmaking - definition and functions of line connect two points - define shape - direct viewers eye - conveys a sense of movement and energy - defines boundaries between planes - Outlines are a visual design - Clamps changing technique  Lines to regulate and control- infinite variety of different types of line lines express control / planning straight / curved can be regular / carefully measured  Regulated line communicates objectively and accuracy  Lines to express emotion- Irregular lines can reflect wildness chaos flash accident  Can seem passionate / emotional  Most works uses both regular / irregular lines  Implied lines - Lines can be employed by series of marks - No actual solid line present, just the idea of line - Gives the impression of line where there is no continuous mark.  Directional line - Artist can use line to direct a viewer’s attention to a particular part of a work  Contour line (outline)- The outer edge or profile of an object. Can suggest a volume in space by giving clues about a surface  Communicative lines- Lines guide attention / suggest particular feelings Vertical- strength/energy Horizontal- calmness/passivity Diagonal- action, motion/change. Shape: geometric/organic shapes Shape - two-dimensional area whose boundaries are defined by lines or suggested by changes in color / value Two types - geometric / organic shapes Organic - unpredictable or regular lines suggesting the natural world Geometric - mathematically regular and precise Implied shapes- Shapes where no continuous boundary exists. Just add a line can be implied so you can shapes.  Contrast- When an artist uses two different states of an element - Strong difference can be a very useful effect for an artist - It's especially effective to use opposites - Our eyes are drawn to high contrast - Negative vs positive space - Conclusion Artists use lines, shapes, contrast to communicate in two dimensions Images within two dimensions can communicate complex ideas via these simple principles. Art as a World Phenomenon Notes:  Chapter 1.2 ­ Three dimensional art: form, volume, mass, and texture   Two­dimensional works­ have height/ width   Three­dimensional works­ have height width and depth (Ex. Pyramids) Form   Shapes are flat; forms are three­dimensional   Scale: the size of an object   Forms: have volume and mass   Volume: amount of space a form occupies   Mass: expression of solidity   Texture: is the sensation of touching  ­ Artist evoke memory of touch  ­ Material can communicate ideas (Ex. Hard as stone, smooth as silk).  Geometric form  Regular forms, readily expressible in words or numbers  Cubes, spheres, cones, cylinders, and pyramids are some examples  Canon­ an excepted set of rules  Organic form   Derived from living things   Irregular and unpredictable   Can be used for an expressive effect Form in relief and in the round  Relief: forms project from a flat surface  ­ Designed to be viewed from one side only (high and low relief) In the round: can be seen from all sides  Volume  Volume­ is the amount of space an object takes up  ­ Architectural forms usually enclose an interior volume  Open volume­ encloses a space with materials that are not completely solid  Mass: Suggest that something is solid and occupies space   Our perception of mass is derived from  ­ Our imagination ­ Experience with smaller objects  ­ Our understanding of the forces of nature  Mass can suggest weight in a three­dimensional object (does not imply heaviness, only  the volume is solid and occupies space. Texture Tactile sensation: experienced when physically encountering three­dimensional form ­ Humans mostly rely on impressions received from touch  ­ Observing a surface lets us can imagine its texture  Conclusion  ­ Three­dimensional art is expressed in height, width, and depth  ­ Forms can be geometric or organic  ­ Volume is the amount of space occupied by the form ­ Mass is the impression that volume is solid and occupies space ­ The surface of the form can describe in terms its texture ­ Artist can use the language of three­dimensional art to express many idea and emotions. Art as a World Phenomenon Notes- Chapter 1.3 – Implied Depth: Value and Space Introduction  An image in two dimensions creates an illusion  Techniques used to imply depth: value, space, and perspective - Value- the lightness/darkness of a surface - Space- the distance between identifiable points or planes - Perspective- the illusion of depth in two-dimensional image using mathematical principals Value  The intensity of light or dark  Value can add a sense of solidity and influence mood - Film noir, French for “dark film”  The serious mood is enhanced by dark values - Artist use dark and light values as tools for creating depth Chiaroscuro  Italian for “light and dark” - Chiaro (light) - Oscuro (dark)  Applying value to two-dimensional artwork creates the illusion of three dimensions  Chiaroscuro= extreme light and dark for effect  Renaissance artists used 5 areas of light and shadow - Highlight, light, core shadow, reflected light, and cast shadow Hatching and cross-hatching  Hatching- lines close to and parallel to eachother  Cross-hatching- a variant of hatching in which the lines overlap lines - Suggest form and depth Space  Strategies to create a sense of depth/space include: - Size - Overlapping - Position - Alternating value and texture - Change in brightness and color - Atmospheric perspective Size, overlapping, and position  The size of one shape compared to another - Larger objects= closer  Overlapping makes the shape in front seem closer - A shape lower in the picture seems closer Alternating value and texture - Interspersed value and texture creates visual rhythm Brightness and color  Lighter areas seem closer  Dark areas appear to recede - Especially true of color - We are more likely to think that a pure/intense green is closer than a dark green Atmospheric perspective  Distant objects lack contrast and detail because air is not completely transparent  Atmosphere progressively veils a scene as the distance increases  Contemporary filmmakers use this effect to give illusion of great depth Perspective - Used to suggest the illusion of depth  Isometric perspective- parallels to communicate depth (good for scrolls)  Linear perspective- a system where lines appear to converge at points in space (mathematical) One-point perspective Relies on: A horizon line - A single vanishing point, where all lines (implied or real) converge Two-point perspective  Uses two separate vanishing points  Relies on horizon line Multi-point perspective  Looking from position other than ground level creates other variations of perspective.  Objects with multiple angels have more vanishing points Three-point perspective  Most common multiple point perspective system - Worm’s eye looking up - Birdseye looking down - Vanishing point below or above the horizon line for a high or low angel of observations Cone of vision: line of sight without using perspective/ a straight line along which an  observer has unobstructed vision Foreshortening  Results when the rules of perspective are applied to represent unusal points of view - Especially applies to figures Conclusion  Artist create effects of light on objects with value  Depth appears with overlapping shapes or contrasted size  Artists mimic texture, brightness, color, intensity, and atmospheric perspective to create an imagery in space  Different systems of perspective allow artist to create a sense of depth Chapter 1.4 – Color Introduction  Color attracts attention and excites emotions  Our perceptions of color are personal and subjective - Ancient Greek philosophers saw color as a state of mind - Determined by wavelengths of reflected light  Visible colors are portions of the light spectrum that surfaces fail to absorb and reflect light Light and color  Primary colors- cannot be mixed from any other two colors  Secondary colors- can be mixed from two primary colors - Colors of light and colors of pigment behave differently Subtractive and additive color - Mixed subtracted color= darker and duller - Mixed additive color= lighter Dimensions of color:  Hue- basic colors of the spectrum - Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet Dimension of color: value - Each hue has value  Relative lightness/darkness compared to another hue  Different colors of the same hue vary in value - Light reds/ dark reds - Shades= darker - Tints= lighter than their basic hue Dimensions of color: saturation  Color at its purest state- highest level of saturation  The height of saturation is closest to a pure state in the color spectrum - A pastel tone and a dark tone= low saturation - A grayed middle value of red also has low saturation - Saturation is not related to value Color schemes  The color wheel displays important color relationships - Complementary colors- contrast strongly with each other (ex. Blue and orange) - Analogous colors don’t contrast strongly with each other/ next to each other on the color wheel Our perception of color - Color can be evocative or physical - Some colors are associated with emotional states - “Color temperature” blue is cold red is hot - Our eyes sometimes cannot fully comprehend all the colors we see, so our brain translates the incoming information’s - Optical color- colors our minds create based on perceived information Color in design - Commercial printing and film/video screens take a difference approach to color Color in print - Four separate colors - Commercial printers use cyan, magenta, yellow, and black - An image is scanned and separated into the four colors Cmyk printing - Cyan, magenta, yellow, black - Images are scanned and seprated into colors - Colors are printed in layers - Optical color mixing also plays a role in CMYK  4 colors are printed as dots in a regualer pattern (screen) - The smaller the dot the less of each color is printed Color in electronic displays  Digital displays: illuminated by 3 different colored light cells - Phosphors - Primary colors of red, green, and blue (additive) - Electronic monitor turns phosphors on or off - Red and blue phosphors = magenta - All three primaries = light - Complex combinations = millions of color possibilities Color and the brain - Affects how we think and feel - Psychological studies show color can affect behavior - Advertisers reach the audience with color - Also have traditional symbolic values - Green= positive for Muslims - Buddha/Confucius =yellow and gold - Jews/Christians = blue The psychology of color - Affects us psychologically - Affects how we react - Some universal psychological associations (ex. Red= energy) - Others vary by culture - White is for funerals in Asia - White= purity or newness in America/ Europe Expressive aspects of color - Artists sometimes want an emotional reaction - Color can express a wide range of emotions - Artists can use color to engage the viewer Conclusion - Artists color the basic theory about color based on the 3 primary colors - Using color to express feelings, artist have been exploring the human response to it


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