Art As A World Phenomenon Notes
Art As A World Phenomenon Notes ARTH - 12001 - 002
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Rinella on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH - 12001 - 002 at Kent State University taught by Maria E Campbell (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see ART AS A WORLD PHENOMENON in Art History at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Chapter 1.1 - art in two dimensions line and shape Who are the nacirema? (Reading from last week) they are Americans Removed from contacts / looked from and outsiders personal bias can make the perfectly normal seem bizarre. Two dimensional art elements of art basic vocabulary art line: fundamental element of art principles grammar or set of rules an artist uses to organize design Two dimensional art - Flat - Height/width with no depth - drawing, painting, graphic design printmaking - definition and functions of line connect two points - define shape - direct viewers eye - conveys a sense of movement and energy - defines boundaries between planes - Outlines are a visual design - Clamps changing technique Lines to regulate and control- infinite variety of different types of line lines express control / planning straight / curved can be regular / carefully measured Regulated line communicates objectively and accuracy Lines to express emotion- Irregular lines can reflect wildness chaos flash accident Can seem passionate / emotional Most works uses both regular / irregular lines Implied lines - Lines can be employed by series of marks - No actual solid line present, just the idea of line - Gives the impression of line where there is no continuous mark. Directional line - Artist can use line to direct a viewer’s attention to a particular part of a work Contour line (outline)- The outer edge or profile of an object. Can suggest a volume in space by giving clues about a surface Communicative lines- Lines guide attention / suggest particular feelings Vertical- strength/energy Horizontal- calmness/passivity Diagonal- action, motion/change. Shape: geometric/organic shapes Shape - two-dimensional area whose boundaries are defined by lines or suggested by changes in color / value Two types - geometric / organic shapes Organic - unpredictable or regular lines suggesting the natural world Geometric - mathematically regular and precise Implied shapes- Shapes where no continuous boundary exists. Just add a line can be implied so you can shapes. Contrast- When an artist uses two different states of an element - Strong difference can be a very useful effect for an artist - It's especially effective to use opposites - Our eyes are drawn to high contrast - Negative vs positive space - Conclusion Artists use lines, shapes, contrast to communicate in two dimensions Images within two dimensions can communicate complex ideas via these simple principles. Art as a World Phenomenon Notes: Chapter 1.2 Three dimensional art: form, volume, mass, and texture Twodimensional works have height/ width Threedimensional works have height width and depth (Ex. Pyramids) Form Shapes are flat; forms are threedimensional Scale: the size of an object Forms: have volume and mass Volume: amount of space a form occupies Mass: expression of solidity Texture: is the sensation of touching Artist evoke memory of touch Material can communicate ideas (Ex. Hard as stone, smooth as silk). Geometric form Regular forms, readily expressible in words or numbers Cubes, spheres, cones, cylinders, and pyramids are some examples Canon an excepted set of rules Organic form Derived from living things Irregular and unpredictable Can be used for an expressive effect Form in relief and in the round Relief: forms project from a flat surface Designed to be viewed from one side only (high and low relief) In the round: can be seen from all sides Volume Volume is the amount of space an object takes up Architectural forms usually enclose an interior volume Open volume encloses a space with materials that are not completely solid Mass: Suggest that something is solid and occupies space Our perception of mass is derived from Our imagination Experience with smaller objects Our understanding of the forces of nature Mass can suggest weight in a threedimensional object (does not imply heaviness, only the volume is solid and occupies space. Texture Tactile sensation: experienced when physically encountering threedimensional form Humans mostly rely on impressions received from touch Observing a surface lets us can imagine its texture Conclusion Threedimensional art is expressed in height, width, and depth Forms can be geometric or organic Volume is the amount of space occupied by the form Mass is the impression that volume is solid and occupies space The surface of the form can describe in terms its texture Artist can use the language of threedimensional art to express many idea and emotions. Art as a World Phenomenon Notes- Chapter 1.3 – Implied Depth: Value and Space Introduction An image in two dimensions creates an illusion Techniques used to imply depth: value, space, and perspective - Value- the lightness/darkness of a surface - Space- the distance between identifiable points or planes - Perspective- the illusion of depth in two-dimensional image using mathematical principals Value The intensity of light or dark Value can add a sense of solidity and influence mood - Film noir, French for “dark film” The serious mood is enhanced by dark values - Artist use dark and light values as tools for creating depth Chiaroscuro Italian for “light and dark” - Chiaro (light) - Oscuro (dark) Applying value to two-dimensional artwork creates the illusion of three dimensions Chiaroscuro= extreme light and dark for effect Renaissance artists used 5 areas of light and shadow - Highlight, light, core shadow, reflected light, and cast shadow Hatching and cross-hatching Hatching- lines close to and parallel to eachother Cross-hatching- a variant of hatching in which the lines overlap lines - Suggest form and depth Space Strategies to create a sense of depth/space include: - Size - Overlapping - Position - Alternating value and texture - Change in brightness and color - Atmospheric perspective Size, overlapping, and position The size of one shape compared to another - Larger objects= closer Overlapping makes the shape in front seem closer - A shape lower in the picture seems closer Alternating value and texture - Interspersed value and texture creates visual rhythm Brightness and color Lighter areas seem closer Dark areas appear to recede - Especially true of color - We are more likely to think that a pure/intense green is closer than a dark green Atmospheric perspective Distant objects lack contrast and detail because air is not completely transparent Atmosphere progressively veils a scene as the distance increases Contemporary filmmakers use this effect to give illusion of great depth Perspective - Used to suggest the illusion of depth Isometric perspective- parallels to communicate depth (good for scrolls) Linear perspective- a system where lines appear to converge at points in space (mathematical) One-point perspective Relies on: A horizon line - A single vanishing point, where all lines (implied or real) converge Two-point perspective Uses two separate vanishing points Relies on horizon line Multi-point perspective Looking from position other than ground level creates other variations of perspective. Objects with multiple angels have more vanishing points Three-point perspective Most common multiple point perspective system - Worm’s eye looking up - Birdseye looking down - Vanishing point below or above the horizon line for a high or low angel of observations Cone of vision: line of sight without using perspective/ a straight line along which an observer has unobstructed vision Foreshortening Results when the rules of perspective are applied to represent unusal points of view - Especially applies to figures Conclusion Artist create effects of light on objects with value Depth appears with overlapping shapes or contrasted size Artists mimic texture, brightness, color, intensity, and atmospheric perspective to create an imagery in space Different systems of perspective allow artist to create a sense of depth Chapter 1.4 – Color Introduction Color attracts attention and excites emotions Our perceptions of color are personal and subjective - Ancient Greek philosophers saw color as a state of mind - Determined by wavelengths of reflected light Visible colors are portions of the light spectrum that surfaces fail to absorb and reflect light Light and color Primary colors- cannot be mixed from any other two colors Secondary colors- can be mixed from two primary colors - Colors of light and colors of pigment behave differently Subtractive and additive color - Mixed subtracted color= darker and duller - Mixed additive color= lighter Dimensions of color: Hue- basic colors of the spectrum - Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet Dimension of color: value - Each hue has value Relative lightness/darkness compared to another hue Different colors of the same hue vary in value - Light reds/ dark reds - Shades= darker - Tints= lighter than their basic hue Dimensions of color: saturation Color at its purest state- highest level of saturation The height of saturation is closest to a pure state in the color spectrum - A pastel tone and a dark tone= low saturation - A grayed middle value of red also has low saturation - Saturation is not related to value Color schemes The color wheel displays important color relationships - Complementary colors- contrast strongly with each other (ex. Blue and orange) - Analogous colors don’t contrast strongly with each other/ next to each other on the color wheel Our perception of color - Color can be evocative or physical - Some colors are associated with emotional states - “Color temperature” blue is cold red is hot - Our eyes sometimes cannot fully comprehend all the colors we see, so our brain translates the incoming information’s - Optical color- colors our minds create based on perceived information Color in design - Commercial printing and film/video screens take a difference approach to color Color in print - Four separate colors - Commercial printers use cyan, magenta, yellow, and black - An image is scanned and separated into the four colors Cmyk printing - Cyan, magenta, yellow, black - Images are scanned and seprated into colors - Colors are printed in layers - Optical color mixing also plays a role in CMYK 4 colors are printed as dots in a regualer pattern (screen) - The smaller the dot the less of each color is printed Color in electronic displays Digital displays: illuminated by 3 different colored light cells - Phosphors - Primary colors of red, green, and blue (additive) - Electronic monitor turns phosphors on or off - Red and blue phosphors = magenta - All three primaries = light - Complex combinations = millions of color possibilities Color and the brain - Affects how we think and feel - Psychological studies show color can affect behavior - Advertisers reach the audience with color - Also have traditional symbolic values - Green= positive for Muslims - Buddha/Confucius =yellow and gold - Jews/Christians = blue The psychology of color - Affects us psychologically - Affects how we react - Some universal psychological associations (ex. Red= energy) - Others vary by culture - White is for funerals in Asia - White= purity or newness in America/ Europe Expressive aspects of color - Artists sometimes want an emotional reaction - Color can express a wide range of emotions - Artists can use color to engage the viewer Conclusion - Artists color the basic theory about color based on the 3 primary colors - Using color to express feelings, artist have been exploring the human response to it
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