Physical Geography GEOG 101 800
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justin Notetaker on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 101 800 at Ball State University taught by Michael James Hawkins in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Geography at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Week 2 chapter 2 Notes GEOL 101 PORTRAYING EARTH MAPS AND GLOBES MAPS MapA flat representation of Earth, shown reduced in size with only selected features or data showing. - Shows distance, direction, size, and shape in their horizontal spatial relationships. MAP DISTORTIONS: No map is perfectly accurate 2 main factors: 1. How much of the Earth is being shown on the map. 2. The scale of the map MAP SCALE Map scale Describes the relationship between distances measured on the map and the actual distance that represents on Earth’s surface. - Scale can never be perfectly correct. THREE (3) SCALE TYPES 1. Graphic Map Scales a. Uses a line marked off in distances to represent actual distances on Earth’s surface. i. Measure off the distance between two points on the map and compare that measured distance to the graphic map scale. 1. Simplicity 2. Fractional Map Scales a. Conveys the relationship between distances measured on a map and the actual distance that represents on Earth with a fraction or ratio called a represented fraction. i. Use of the fraction 1/63,360 1. 1 Unit of measure on the map represents an actual distance of 63,360 units of measure on Earth. 3. Verbal Map Scales a. States in words the relationship between the distance on the map and the actual distance on Earth’s surface. LARGE AND SMALL SCALE MAPS - Large-Scale Maps – Has relatively large representative fraction o 1:10,000 - Small-Scale Maps o Larger Denominator 1:10,000,000 MAP PROJECTIONS AND PROPERTIES - Map Projections – system in which the spherical surface of Earth is transformed for display on a flat surface. - Map Properties o Equivalent Map Projection (equal area map projection) The correct size ration of area on the map to the corresponding actual area on Earth’s surface is maintained over the entire map. Show distortion; especially with higher latitudes o Conformal map projections One in which proper angular relationships are maintained across the entire map so that the shapes of features such as coastlines are the same as on the earth. Scale changes from one region to another o Comprise Projections Comprise map projection – it is neither equivalent nor conformal, but instead balances reasonable accurate shapes with reasonable accurate areas. FAMILIES OF MAP PROJECTIONS - Cylindrical Projections o Obtained by mathematically “wrapping” the globe with a cylinder of paper in which a way that the paper touches the globe only at the globes equator. o The paper is positioned this way is tangent to the globe at the equator, and the equator is called the circle of tangency. o There is no size distortion at the circle of tangency, but size distortion increases progressively with increasing distances from the circle, a characteristic clearly exemplified by the Mercator projection. - Mercator: The Most Famous Projection o Mercator Projection – a conformal map projection designed to facilitate oceanic navigation. Shows loxodrome (rhumb line) A curve on the surface of a sphere that crosses all meridians at the same angle and represents a line of constant compass direction. - Planar Projections o Planar Projections – obtained by projecting the markings of a center-lit globe onto a flat piece of paper that is tangent to the globe at one point. (North and South pole or equator) Typically only show one hemisphere - Conic Projections o Conic Projections – obtained by projecting the markings of a center onto a cone-wrapped tangent to, or intersecting a portion of the globe. The apex of the come is positioned above a pole, which means that the circle of tangency coincides with a parallel. The parallel become the standard parallel Impractical for more than ¼ of the earth. - Pseudocylindrical Projections (Elliptical or oval projection) o Pseudocylindrical Projections – a roughly football-shaped map, usually of the entire world, although sometimes only the central section of a Pseudocylindrical Projections is used for maps of lesser areas Central parallel and central meridian typically cross at right angles in the middle of the map. (Point of no distortion) Distortion increases progressively as one moves away from this center point. - Interrupted projections o Goode’s Interrupted homolosine equal-area projection Interpret oceanic regions CONVEYING INFORMATION ON MAPS - Map Essentials o Title o Date o Legend o Scale o Direction o Location o Data Source o Projection Type - Isolines o Isoline – generic term that refers to any line that joins points of equal value of something Elevation Contour Lines – and isoline that represents a tangible surface. Elevation contour line – a line joining points of equal elevation Isotherm – a line joining points of equal temperature Isobar – a line joining points of equal atmospheric pressure Isohyet – a line joining points of equal quantities of precipitation Isogonic line – a line joining points of equal magnetic declination
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