Nutrition and Health Chapter 1 Notes
Nutrition and Health Chapter 1 Notes NTRI 2000
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becky Stinchcomb on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. B. D. White in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Nutrition and Health January 15, 2016 What is nutrition? - The science that links foods to health and disease Includes processes by which human organisms ingest, digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and excrete food substances - The study of nutrients in our body and in the diet What are nutrients? - Components of food that are indispensable to the proper functioning of the body Act as building blocks “You are what you eat” Provide energy 2/3 of energy used to just be alive Help maintain and repair the body Support growth Essential Nutrients - Nutrients that our body can’t make or can’t make in sufficient amounts MUST be obtained from the diet Food as Nourishment By age 65 you’ll eat 70,000 meals (50 tons of food) You’ll spend nearly 4 years of your life eating The foods you choose have a cumulative effect on your health The effect builds up over time Malnutrition - Any condition caused by a deficiency or excess of nutrient intake Only tobacco use has a bigger effect on your health Many nutritionally related diseases are chronic and take years to show up clinically Nutrition and Disease Poor diet is a risk factor for chronic disease Cardiovascular disease Hypertension Diabetes Some forms of cancer These diseases account for approximately 2/3 of all deaths in North America Obesity: the 2ndleading cause of preventable death in North America Osteoporosis Six Classes of Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates (Macronutrient; contains energy; organic [contains carbon]) Proteins (Macronutrient; contains energy; organic [contains carbon]) Lipids (fats) (Macronutrient; contains energy; organic [contains carbon]) Vitamins (Micronutrient; contains carbon) Minerals (Micronutrient) Water (Macronutrient; inorganic [doesn’t contain carbon]) Non-nutrients in food Phytochemicals: plant compounds; thought to have health benefits Carotenoids: orange, red, and yellow fruits & veggies Resveratrol: grapes, peanuts, red wine Flavonoids: citrus fruits, onions, apples, chocolate Isoflavones: soybeans, other legumes Energy- Yielding Nutrients - Energy ultimately comes from the sun CO2 (carbon dioxide) + H2O (water) + light CHO (carbohydrates) + O2 (oxygen) [photosynthesis] CHO (carbohydrates) + O2 (oxygen) CO2 (carbon dioxide) +H2O (water) + energy [metabolism] Overall Reaction – Light Energy Measure of energy in nutrients: Calorie, Kilocalorie or Kcal Carbohydrates: 4 Kcal per KNO gram Proteins: 4 Kcal per gram W Fat: 9 Kcal per gram HOW MANY CALORIES ARE IN A WHOPPER? WHAT % IS FAT? Carbs: 51 g 51 g x 4 Kcal/ g = 204 Kcal Proteins: 31 g 31 g x 4 Kcal/ g = 124 Kcal Fat: 44 g 44 g x 9 Kcal/ g = 396 Kcal 724 Kcal total (396 Kcal from fat / 724 Kcal total) x 100 = 54.7 % fat Alcohol Alcohol is not a nutrient; it is considered a toxin We DO obtain calories from 7 Kcal/ g Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences Recommendations: Carbohydrates: 45 – 65 % Fats: 20 – 30 % Proteins: 10 – 35 % Average North American Consumption: Carbohydrates: 50 % Fats: 33 % Proteins: 16 % National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) How scientists gather the information about nutrition in the United States What are the drives to eat? Hunger: the physiological drive to eat Appetite: the psychological drive to eat Satiety: the feeling of being full, which temporarily halts the drive to eat Cultural and Social Meaning Attached to Food Sharing food: symbol of sharing culture State dinners at White House Rehearsal dinner before wedding Individual cultures have own cuisine Ethnic foods Regional foods (Cajun, Creole food of New Orleans) Reasons to select a particular food Availability Convenience Economy Emotional comfort Ethnic heritage Habit Personal preference Positive associations Region of country Social pressure Values or beliefs The challenge of choosing foods More foods to choose from now than ever before Irony: variety made it more difficult to select a nutritious diet
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