Anth 120 Chapter 1 History of Forensic Science
Anth 120 Chapter 1 History of Forensic Science Anth 120
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 120 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Kathleen Blue in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Forensic Science: An Anthropological Approach in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
1/13/16 Chapter One History of Forensic Science What is forensic science? Application of science to law o Criminal o Civil What aspect of forensic science are most practitioners engaged in? o Drug testing Forensic science is the application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system American Academy of Forensic Science (AAFS) Established 1948 Eleven sections o Criminalistics o Digital and multimedia sciences o Engineering science o General o Jurisprudence o Odontology o Pathology/biology o Physical anthropology o Psychiatry/behavioral science o Questioned documents o Toxicology Some important forensic sciences do not have their own section All 50 states and 70 countries Over 7000 members Journal of Forensic Sciences Annual meetings MNIAI Minnesota Division of the International Association for Identification Educational Conference is held each September Forensic Science Not like CSI or Bones Multiple individuals are involved; one person does not do everything Is not infallible o Science is, but people are not Most practitioners are civilians with degrees in biology or chemistry Law enforcement personnel or others with expert knowledge/advanced degrees are also involved Evidence may be present, but it may not be enough for either an arrest or conviction The public’s interest in DNA and other forensic sciences can be problematic for law enforcement and the courts The History of Forensic Science Sir Arthur Conan Doyle o Author of Sherlock Holmes o Created an early interest in forensic science Alphonse Bertillon o Anthropometry – first system employed for the identification of individuals Francis Galton o First study and implementation of fingerprints for identification Mathieu Orfila o Poison Leone Lattes o Blood-typing Calvin Goddard o Bullet/firearm comparison Albert Osborn o Document examination Walter McCrone o Microscopy Hans Gross o Scientific application Edmond Locard – crime laboratory o Locard’s exchange principle When an individual comes into contact with another individual or object, a cross-transference of materials occurs Thomas Dwight – forensic anthropology o Parkman 1849 Cambridge, Massachusetts Victime – Dr. George Parkman Perpetrator – Dr. John Webster ID of bones led to ID of age, sex and stature o Leutgert 1897 Chicago, IL Victim – Louisa Leutgert Perpetrator – Adolph Leutgert ID of bone fragments Crime Laboratories FBI Laboratory – largest forensic laboratory in the world o Established in 1932 Oldest US crime lab is the Los Angeles Police Department (1923) Crime labs can be federal, state, county, city or private Different systems in different areas o Some are centralized or networked, while others are independent More than 400 US labs and 14,000 employees Expected growth o Mainly due to crime, drug testing and DNA Federal laboratories o FBI Quantico o DEA o ATF o USPS Local laboratories o Hennepin County Sheriff’s Office Crime Lab Unit o MN BCA (St. Paul and Bemidji) o Minneapolis Crime Lab o Tri-County Regional Forensic Lab Crime Lab Services Physical science unit Biology unit Firearms unit Document examination unit Photography unit May include: o Toxicology unit o Latent fingerprint unit o Polygraph unit o Voiceprint analysis unit o Crime scene investigation unit Functions of the Forensic Scientist Analysis of physical evidence Provision of expert testimony Furnishing training in recognition, collection and preservation of physical evidence The Scientific Method 1. Observe some aspect of the universe 2. Invent a tentative description, hypothesis, that is consistent with what you have observed 3. Use the hypothesis to make predictions 4. Test those predictions by experiments or further observations and modify the hypothesis in the light of your results 5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are no discrepancies between theory and experiment and/or observation When consistency is obtained the hypothesis becomes a theory and provides a coherent set of propositions which explain a class of phenomena o A theory is then a framework within which observations are explained and predictions are made Admissibility of Evidence Frye o Procedure or technique must be “generally accepted” by scientific community Daubert o Trial judge has ultimate responsibility for determining the reliability of evidence Kumho and Coppolino o All testimony, not just “scientific” knowledge o New techniques, if based on sound accepted scientific principles, are admissible
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