Ecology 1000 Week 2
Ecology 1000 Week 2 ECOL 1000
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Veliz on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ECOL 1000 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Scott Connelly in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Environmental Issues in Business at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Ecology 1000, week two Population • The higher the birth rates among younger women, the shorter generations times. This means that these children will grow up and reproduce, which in return means that the population size increases significantly. • Life tables-‐ Statistics relating to the age-‐ specific schedules of survival and reproduction. These include: Age Number alive Probability of survival between Mortality rate Fecundity (reproduction outcome) • Cohort-‐ Same age group • The exponential model of growth (dN/dt = rN) assumes: -‐Resources such as food and space are unlimited -‐Constant environment (no variation in season) • Population size must be controlled. Which is why there is a carrying capacity. • Carrying capacity-‐ Number of organisms an environment can support without the organisms destroying resources for future generations. • dN = rN (1-‐N/K) dt The equation is to reduce population growth as it approaches carrying capacity, N=population size, K= carrying capacity, r=rate of growth per capita. • As population approaches carrying capacity, rN is multiplied by a small number, which slows down the growth rate. • Population size should decrease once it reaches carrying capacity. • Once population reaches carrying capacity, the environment has more resistance on supporting the population, which causes the population to decrease. What factors control population growth or size? • Density-‐dependent factors-‐ the growth depends on current population size. -‐Resource availability -‐Competition -‐Disease • Density independent factors-‐ these affect growth regardless of population size -‐Temperature -‐Precipitation -‐Catastrophic disturbances • Regulation-‐ Tendency of population to increase or decrease above/below a certain level. • Population can only be regulated by density-‐dependent factors. Ecosystem services & Environmental economics Ray Anderson-‐ Video for business case sustainability v 1994 Atlanta-‐based Interface Carpet leader v Petroleum based carpets (cause air and water pollution) v Although the company would have 6 tons of landfill waste per day, they complied with environmental laws v After reading “The Ecology of Commerce” by Paul Hawken, Ray had an epiphany. v Ray said, “You can’t go on consuming more than your environment is able to renew. We’re on the wrong side of history, and we’ve got to do something” v Ray then increased his company’s profit by making a more productive company while doing well to the environment. • Ecological footprint-‐ land needed to provide resources and assimilate waste -‐Its determined by its size, and amount of resources used per person. -‐If everyone in the world lived like people in USA, we would need 4 planets to do so. • Natural capita-‐ range of natural resources provided by ecosystems. • Ray recognized that we can’t use our natural capita quicker than it is being replaced. -‐His goal was to build a sustainable environment, meaning that living your life with a certain standard will not affect other generations. -‐His pathway to achieving his goal: 1. Eliminate waste 2. Benign emissions 3. Renewable energy 4. Closing the loop 5. Efficient transportation 6. Sensitizing stakeholders (train and educating people) 7. Redesigning commerce (look at how a business is done traditionally and then change it) • The Well-‐being of humans depends on maintaining ecological system functions. • Ecosystem services-‐ Conditions and processes of natural ecosystems and species that provide some human value.
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