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Chapter 1 and 2 Notes

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by: Kailee Chitwood

Chapter 1 and 2 Notes 1800

Kailee Chitwood
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About this Document

These notes will be on the first exam
General Sociology
Marisa K Pendleton
Class Notes




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"Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class"

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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kailee Chitwood on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1800 at University of Central Missouri taught by Marisa K Pendleton in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see General Sociology in Sociology at University of Central Missouri.


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Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class



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Date Created: 01/24/16
Sociology Chapter 1: The Sociological Imagination: An Introduction  What is sociology?  The study of human behavior in the social environment  Not intended to alter or shape beliefs  Product of learned environment o How much you knew as a toddler o Racism and religion  Looks at groups  Sociologists study various topics o Patterns of violence to what you do in the bathroom  The Sociological Perspective (Imagination)  C. Wright Mills  A lens or a worldwide view  Helps understand how we analyze the world Terms:  Concept: describes behavior or characteristic  o Descriptive adjectives   Hypothesis: how you think concepts are related   Theory: explains relationship between concepts  Social Institution: Any institution in a society that works to shape the behavior of the  groups of people within it and helps maintain the stability within a society  Founding Fathers: 1. Auguste Comte a. Credited as the original founding father  b. Took physical science and applied it to human and how we live 2. Karl Marx a. Focus on social class b. How to bourgeoisie (rich) exploit the proletariat (poor)  i. Ex: Class Consciousness  Revolution  More equality  3. Emile Durkheim  a. Social integration based: what makes you feel you belong  b. Social facts: what influences behavior   c. Collective conscience: what we think is right and wrong  d. How we follow routines 4. Max Weber a. Response to Marx­ social class not as important  b. Religion as a central force in social change c. Verstehen­ understanding  American Sociologists 1. Charles H. Cooley a. Looking glass self 2. George Herbert Mead a. The Self: I and Me i. I­ instinctual ii. Me­ learned through interaction Other Sociologists 1. Harriet Martineau a. Wrote the first method book for sociology b. Translate Comte’s work into English c. Early feminist social scientist  2. W.E.B Du Bois a. First African American to receive a PhD from Harvard b. Co­founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People  (NAACP) 3. Jane Addams a. Founder of Hull House in Chicago Sociological Theories 1. Functionalism  a. Durkheim b. Society is a system with integrated parts c. Interdependence­ continuation of society  d. Manifest functions. Latent functions, and dysfunctions 2. Conflict Theory a. Marx b. Emphasis on conflict and exploitation as normal  c. Competition for scarce resources d. Social classes unfair  3. Symbolic Interaction a. Weber, Cooley, Mead b. People interact with symbols c. Key= interaction and socialization d. Social positions e. Role i. Role Making: finding personal niche ii. Role strain: deals with one position iii. Role Taking: put yourself in role of another iv. Role Conflict: more than one position Microsociology and Macrosociology   Micro:  o Small scale o Symbolic interactionism  o Social interaction between people or groups  Macro: o Large scale o Functionalism and conflict theory o Broad patterns that impact society as a whole  Chapter 2: Methods  Research Methods:  The tools used to describe, explore and explain social phenomena   Through research comes development of theories  Truth­ What is it?  Empirical Evidence­ what we can verify   A truth is true until proven otherwise Variables:   A concept whose occurrence or properties change from case to case or person to person  Types of Variables:  Independent: what causes change  Dependent: what is being changed How Do We Measure Variables?  Use Operational Definitions o Ex: Is alcohol a variable? How do we measure it? Reliability:  Consistency and repeatability in measurement o Ex: GPA on scale 0­4.0 Validity:   Correctness in measurement o How accurate you measure Terms:   Correlation: how 2 variables are related o Positive (++ or ­­) and negative (+­ or ­+)  Sample: the group in a population you studied  Population: the group researchers want to be able to make generalization about  Spuriousness­ variation in 2 variables is actually caused by some other variable o Ex: more ice cream consumed the higher the crime rate  Qualitative  Think quality!!  Detailed patterns of behavior  Small sample sizes  Uses observation and interviews  o Interviews:   Uses open ended questions  Loosely structured  Advantages: provides rich data and can take the researcher in any  direction  Disadvantages: time consuming, leading the participant, smaller  sample sizes o Observations:   Collect data by observing and interaction with participant   Overt: permission given by participant  Convert: participant unware  Advantages: allows researcher to observe real world  Disadvantages: small sample size, time observing Quantitative   Think quantity!  Uses statistics  Large sample sizes  Uses surveys, experiments and secondary data o Survey: most common method  Written questionnaires and structured oral interviews  Advantages: quick, cost effective, large sample   Disadvantages: self­report, cannot clarify o Experiments  Cause and effect  Structured  Advantages: can manipulate surroundings  Disadvantages: Hawthorne effect, small  o Secondary Data Analysis:  Analyzing data that has already been collected  Advantages: quickest method, low price, no human subjects  Disadvantages: can’t change data, hard to find exacting what  you’re looking for 


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