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HIST 2040: Week Two of Notes

by: Jesseca Notetaker

HIST 2040: Week Two of Notes HIST2040-001

Marketplace > University of Toledo > History > HIST2040-001 > HIST 2040 Week Two of Notes
Jesseca Notetaker
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About this Document

Here are 6 pages of notes from the two days of class we have last week. Notes are based on main points in lecture along with further explanation from the professor.
ancient near east
Robert McCollough
Class Notes
HIST2040, HIST 2040, ancient near east, MacMan, McCoullough
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jesseca Notetaker on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST2040-001 at University of Toledo taught by Robert McCollough in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see ancient near east in History at University of Toledo.

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Date Created: 01/24/16
HIST2040  Week 2  The Neolithic Age and Early Mesopotamia  ­ The Neolithic Age began nearly 12,000 years ago  ­ man started building permanent structures  ­ Around 6,000 BCE, farming began in the crescent of Mesopotamia  ­ people developed animals and crops that could withstand heat  Jericho  ­ First agricultural community started here  ­ the town began with no more than 10 sq acres  ­ located in the Jordan Valley  ­ In 6,000 BCE, it reached a population of 2,000 people  ­ had walls around the city   ­ walls had 26 feet tall guard towers  Preserved Skulls  ­ 10 human skulls molded in clay have been found in the remains of Jericho  ­ During the time of Jericho, it was thought that the human soul was in the head  ­ Today, we think of our soul’s to be in our hearts  Beida  ­ Located south of Jericho  ­ first workshops started here  Catal Huyuk  ­ Houses in this city were built out of timber  ­ Houses were built side by side forming a wall  ­ had to use a ladder to climb up the wall and a ladder to climb down   ­ Used extensive irrigation  ­ town was next to a swamp like area  ­ the people traded grain  ­ the concept of trading begain with the people of Catal Huyuk  ­ Used Obsedian to build things  ­ It was stronger to use than copper ­ a softer metal  ­ Women lived to 30 years old on average  ­ Mostly due to the harshness of childbirth  ­ Men lived to 34 years old on average  ­ Few people lived to age 60  ­ However, this was EXTREMELY rare  Neolithic Jarmo and Goden Tepe   ­ First clay pots and vessels were made to store things  ­ later known as BeakerWare  ­ beer was made by women shortly after the creation of BeakerWare    1  HIST2040  Week 2  Importance of Pottery  ­ pots to hold food was not used until 8,000 BCE  Neolithic Burial  ­ revealed the hardships of childbirth and motherhood  ­ Women who died in childbirth were buried with their children that died as  well  ­ the first time the wealthy were buried with their wealth was during this time  The Mother Goddess  ­ Venus, mother goddess, concept emerged   ­ supreme being that personified birth, fertility, and motherhood  ­ Shown as Heavy set with large breasts, large hips, and a large pregnant belly  Numen  ­ did not see supernatural things as human   ­ prayed the the wind, sun, and other objects  Abzu  ­ people thought the earth floated on top of water ­­ believed in a water world  First Culture ­ Tell Hassuna  ­ began between 6,000 ­ 5,000 BCE  ­ contained 100­200 people  Somara Culture  ­ began between 5,600 ­ 5,300 BCE  ­ started growing flax  ­ made linen and oil  ­ used sun dried bricks  Tell Halaf  ­ began between 5,500 ­ 5,400 BCE  ­ painted and glazed pottery  ­ created rounded houses with dome roofs  ­ tried to dry farm  ­ kept cattle, sheep, and goats  Ubaid Culture  ­ fertile but swampy southern Iraq  ­ made cities such as Susa, Ur, Waka  ­ constructed houses from reeds and mud  ­ later used sun dried bricks  ­ Population reached 7,500 people  ­ Had the first Urban Center  ­ Used copper as ornaments  ­ built small tempes  2  HIST2040  Week 2  ­ had a large room with a podium in the middle  ­ grew wheat barley, millet, dates, figs, and grapes  ­ buried the dead in cemeteries  ­ food was found in burial sites with the dead  ­ first boats were found among this culture                                                                    The Sumerians  3  HIST2040  Week 2  Urak Period  ­ Ubaid Culture evolved into the Uruk Culture in Southern Mesopotamia  ­ average cities were extremely large  ­ Ur, Uruk, Warka, Susa, Tepe Gawra  Jemdet Nasr Period  ­ 3,300 ­ 3,000 BCE  ­ bronze was invented hear  ­ worked better than copper  Sumerians Arrive  ­ came in around 3,600 BCE  ­ called Sag­giga (Black headed people)  Division of Mesopotamia  ­ 1. Akkad  ­ North Mesopotamia  ­ Believed in war and gods  ­ 2. Sumer  ­ South Mesopotamia  ­ had a lot of female goddesses  ­ Both had different yet similar languages  Conversion to City­State  ­ begain under Sumerians  ­ combo of city and farmland  ­ city administration developed with a lot of authority  ­ this was usually viewed as a hereditary power    ­ (Just like the position of the King was passed down)  Control of land  ­ no one owned land except king and priests  ­ priests controlled the land that was deemed to be the gods’ property  Uruk  ­ first true city with 40,000 ­ 50,000 people  Feeding the City­State  ­ temples in the center of the city­state held the food surplus  ­ which meant a concentration of wealth and strong government leadership  ­ people had to work together in order to have a surplus of food  ­ aka cooperative farming  ­ Government redistributed food  ­ used “distribution bowls”  which was the standard of measurement  Professions  ­ artisans and craftsmen  4  HIST2040  Week 2  ­ system of exchange was created  ­ work or goods was exchanged for food  ­ However, most people were employed by agriculture  Social Class  1. Upper Class ­ Nobles, Priests, Government Officials, and Warriors  2. Middle Class ­ (5% of population) scribes, artisans, craftsmen, etc.  3. Lower Class ­ Worked in Temples and fields  4. Slaves   The Lugal  ­ means “Great Man” aka the King  ­ had to have the approval of the council  The Priests  ­ controlled the population of the city through religion  ­ told the people that the gods needed certain items from the people  ­ Shaved their heads completely bald  ­ (People back in these days were identified by their hair style)  ­ Had a beard  ­ Wore a tufted wool skirt  ­ 10% of the population were priests  Sumerian Religion  ­ extremely difficult to understand this religion  ­ According to them, their was an exact replica of the city they inhabited in heaven  ­ including humans, cows, every single detail  ­ The city in heaven contained the gods while the city on earth contained the  humans  ­ The gods created the humans to do the lowly dirty work that the gods did not  want to do.  ­ So, because of this, these people believed that the good life was while they were  alive and they believed to live life the the fullest because their afterlives were  believed to be miserable  Andedena ­ Paradise  ­ gods created two people “Adam and Eve”  ­ was between the Tigris and Euphrates river in Mesopotamia  Inanna (Ishtar) and Ereshkigal  ­ Inanna was the goddess of light, love, and war  ­ Ereshkigal was the goddess of darkness, gloom, and death  ­ their polarity was a symbol of life vs. death  Other Deities and Information  ­ Utu → god of Justice  5  HIST2040  Week 2  ­ Enki → Lord of Water and Wisdom  ­ There were over 4,000 gods, goddesses, and other deities  ­ Deities often expressed their anger at mankind through earthquakes and storms  ­ people thought they would become ghosts in the afterlife  Adoration of Inanna  ­ monthly feasts and annual celebrations  ­ New Year ­ annual celebration  ­ King marries a priestess and has sex with her  ­ priestess represents Inanna  ­ Sex represents the cities fertility  ­ Sumerian women were required to go to the temple and wait to have sex with  someone they do not know before marriage and becoming a woman  ­ Records of priests begging men to have sex with certain women because  they had been at the temple so long  Invention of Writing  ­ History began in Sumeria  ­ They wrote in wet clay bricks then laid them in the sun to dry  ­ Cuneiform ­ the style of writing invented in this time  Ideogram  ­ semi­pictographic  ­ some words were pronounced the same  ­ you would have to read the entire text to figure out what the writer was  saying  ­ Cuneiform contains 55 different characters  ­ 90% of the ancient Cuneiform writing was administrative  ­ 10% of the ancient Cuneiform writing was culture  ­ e.x. Epic of Gilgamesh   Education  ­ led by priests  ­ taught young boys to become scribes  ­ Cuneiform was used for 2,000 years until 500 BCE  Seals  ­ stamp seals for clay were used to indicate ownership  ­ poor people used stamp seals  ­ rich people used cylinder seals    Sumerian Temples  ­ aka Ziggurat  ­ built completely by volunteers  6  HIST2040  Week 2  ­ people thought that the gods would “smile upon them” if they helped build  these temples  ­ no slaves worked on sacred building or tombs anywhere in ancient world  history  ­ reached as high as 7 stories   ­ Holy of Holies was located on the top of the Ziggurat  ­ Required constant maintenance or it would fall apart   Sumerian Women  ­ had freedoms in the beginning however as civilization began they lost their  freedoms  ­ kept a mother goddess to keep some form of power  ­ e.x. man had to ask mom to marry daughter  ­ parents arranged marriages and a dowry was given from the groom­to­be to the  bride­to­be’s parents  ­ if young man broke engagement, he would forfeit the dowry  ­ if young woman broke engagement, she would pay twice the dowry back  Slavery begins in Sumeria  ­ Sumeria never depended on slaves for agriculture because they did not want the  slaves to revolt and end up being without a food source  ­ Instead, slaves were used for the dirtiest and lowliest of jobs  ­ concubines, ditch diggers, etc  ­ What made up the slave group?  ­ Impoverished people that could not pay their debts  ­ New Immigrants  ­ Free citizens who owed a debt could give their wife or children to pay a  debt for a couple years  Prisoners of War  ­ became slaves  ­ some were blinded  ­ wore neck stocks  Women of the Mountain  ­ sumerians raided a mountain to obtain women  ­ Wardum means “Women of the Mountain”  ­ The people of this mountain were all called Wardum even if they were  men    Buying Slaves  ­ Slaves were bald with a top knot  ­ Hairstyles defined status in society  7  HIST2040  Week 2  ­ escaping was punishable by death  ­ usually branded or tattooed with mark of the person that owned the slave  Sumerian Beer  ­ main diet was bread and beer  ­ Sumerians drank morning, noon, and night  ­ 40% of the grain produced was used to make beer  ­ This beer was thick and extremely strong  Trade and Transport  ­ lacked many necessary natural resources  ­ used carts pulled by carts and donkeys  ­ (Horses came from Russia later in History)  ­ Chariots were invented  ­ Pulled by cattle and donkeys  8 


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