Psyc 3060, Chapter 2
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Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mckenzi Mazur on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3060 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Bruce King in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Sexual Anatomy MALE External Anatomy Primary sex organ is the penis, which consists of three parts: glans, shaft, and root o Circumcision: removal of all or some of the outermost layer of skin on the penis (in women it is the removal of the clitoral hood) o The more nerve endings present, the more sensitive an area is; the fingers, lips and penis are the most sensitive body part on the male body 1. Glans: the round, smooth area at top of the penis (the head) o Formed from the expanded corpus spongiosum o Corona: the raised edge between the glans and the shaft of the penis most sensitive part of the penis. 2. Shaft: body of penis o There are 3 parrellel cylinders of spongy tissue in the shaft The two on top, farthest from the body, are called the corpora cavernosa (cavernous bodies), and the one of the bottom, closest to the body, is called the corpus spongiosum (spongy body) The corpus spongiosum contains the urethra, which is the passageway for sperm and urine 3. Root: expanded back end of the penis consisting of the crucra and bulb o Crucra: the expanded back end of the corpora cavernosa connected to the pubic bone that supports the penis o Bulb: the expanded back end of the corpus spongiosum o The bublacavenosa muscle surrounds the penis and is the only muscle that males can learn to contract voluntary, which creates a larger erection or twitches in the penis Males cannot control the corpus spongiosum What causes an erection? o When a male becomes sexually aroused, the capillaries dilate in the penis and are engorged with blood. o The spongy tissues in the penis become filled with blood and expand, thus causing an erecton. o The corpora cavernosa do not expand as much as the corpus spongiosum does, which allows the penis to become erect. Sperm: male germ cell Scrotum: a sac containing the testicles outside the body cavity that is located beneath the penis o Sperm is produced at a temperature several degrees below the human body temperature. Therefore, to maintain the ideal temperature of the testes: The skin of the scrotum contains lots of sweat glands The scrotum contains many muscle fibers that relax to pull the scrotum farther from the body when hot, and contract to pull the scrotum closer to the body when cold Internal Anatomy Testicles: male gonads responsible for the production of sperm and male hormones. o Epididymis: elongated structure present on the back of each testicle o The testicles descend from the abdominal cavity before birth, and if they do not a male becomes sterile o There are two testicles present in the scrotum, each covered in a fiber sheath. o Testosterone: the primary male hormone o Seminiferous Tubules: where sperm is produced in the (1-3 ft long) 200-300 million sperm are produced daily and in every erection o Leydig Cells: where male hormones are produced Leydig cells occur in the interstitial area between the seminiferous tubules Prostate and Seminal Vesicles o Most of the fluid in ejaculation is seminal fluid 30% produced by prostate and 70% produced by seminal vesicles o Prostate: gland surrounding the orgins of the urethra and neck of bladder Secretes fructose, prostaglandins, bases, fibrinogenase, and an antibiotic o Seminal Vesicles: 2 structures contributing many substances to the seminal fluid Secretes fructose, prostaglandins, and bases o To prevent sperm destruction, the seminal fluid Is basic to neutralize the acidic environment of the vagina Contains fructose, a sugar, that activates the sperm and allows them to become mobile Causes contractions in the uterus from prostaglandins that helps sperm movement Causes semen to temporarily coagulate after ejaculation from the fibrinogenase to prevent any spillage from the vagina Protects the reproductive systems from infections by a natural antibiotic o Cowper’s Glands: 2 pea-shaped structures below the prostate gland Secretes a clear, basic alkaline fluid right before reaching orgasm (Pre-cum) Coats vagina in advance so sperm are not destroyed while passing through urethra Pre-cum probably does not contain sperm Elimination/Duct System 1. Epididymis a. 1 in each testicle (20 ft long) b. takes weeks for sperm to travel from testicle to ejaculation 2. Vas Deferens a. In scrotum, over the pubic bone and bladder (14-16 in) 3. Ejaculatory Ducts a. 2 in the prostate gland (1 in) b. pass through the prostate gland and converge to form reproductive end of urethra 4. Urethra a. goes through the corpus spongiosum and emerges from bladder and ejaculatory ducts b. passage way for sperm and urine FEMALE External anatomy o Perineum: hairless skin between anus and vagina Can tear during child birth Lots of nerve endings sensitive to touch o Vulva: contains all external genitals o Mons Veneris: soft, fatty tissue for protection during intercourse contains pubic hair overlays the area where the two pubic bones connect o Purpose of pubic hair: traps vaginal secretions Men are attracted to vaginal odors Americans have created a distorted negativity about the odors o Labia Majora: 2 lip-like structures between mons veneris and perineum, contains pubic hair Folds together to protect vaginal and urethral openings when unaroused/relaxed o Labia Minora: 2 lip-like structures between labia majora Hairless, pink, sensitive to touch Become engorged with blood when aroused and become 3x as large The 2 structures come together at the top to form the clitoral hood Barthotholin’s Glands: produces a few drops of alkaline fluid to the inner surfaces of the Vagina to counteract the acidity of the vagina for sperm survival occurs at the bottom of the labia minora o Clitoris: most sensitive part of female sexual organs Clitoral Glans: top of clitoris Contains 2 corpora cavernosa that swell with blood when aroused and slightly increase in size End of shaft attached to pubic bone Vocal point of women’s sexual pleasure Consists of same tissue as male penis o Vaginal opening: sensitive, and contains vagina (reproductive system) Vestibular Area: area between the two labia minora only visible when labia minora are opened Bulbocavernosus Muscle: ring of sphincter muscles surrounding the vaginal opening Vestibular Bulbs: occur under bulbocavernosus muscle on each side of vaginal opening that the help vagina grip penis Hymen: thin membrane covering vaginal opening that can be broken or torn with intercourse or insertion of tampons o Urethral opening: contains urethra, and comes from bladder (urinary system) Urinary tract infections are more common in women than men because rectal opening is closer to urethral opening and easier for bacteria to get caught in female’s urethra Internal anatomy o Vagina: 3-5 inches long and points backward Does not contain many nerve endings, not very sensitive to touch Walls normally collapsed When aroused, vagina expands to maximum of 6 inches long, walls pull apart, and vaginal opening swells with blood (shrinks a little) Self-cleansing organ During sex, little or no vaginal pleasure/sensations because not enough nerve endings Sex feels better for men, because penis has lots of nerve endings Grafenberg (G) Spot: location of a small and very sensitive area within vaginal walls that contains lots of nerve endings Stimulation of this area often leads to an orgasm Occurs only in about 10% or less of females o PC muscle (Pubococcygeus): surrounds vagina and bladder More nerve endings than vaginal walls The stronger the PC muscle, the more vaginal sensations and more urinary control After child birth, women can loose urinary control because the PC muscle becomes weak and flabby Women can increase PC muscle strength by kegel exercises o Uterus At a 90° angle from vagina Cervix: narrow end of uterus protruding into back of vagina Fundus: broad end of uterus Consists of 3 layers 1. Endometrium: innermost layer o Opening is very small (size of match stick) o Where the egg implants o Sloughs off over 3-5 days if egg is not fertilized (period) 2. Myometrium: middle layer o Strong, and contracts during labor 3. Perimetrium: outermost layer o External covering Fallopian tubes (oviducts): pathway of egg to uterus after ovulation 1 ovary suspended under each fallopian tube Fimbria: finger-like projections from fallopian tubes that pick up an egg from the ovary Ovary: female gonads Consists of same tissue as the male testes Production of eggs (ova) and female hormones (progesterone and estrogen) Females are born with a few hundred thousand eggs and that is as many as they’ll ever have (they do not produce any more throughout their lifetime) o Breasts Not apart of female reproductive anatomy, but apart of sexual anatomy Essentially modified sweat glands Contain 15-20 mammary glands that can produce milk and are connected to the nipple via a duct The size is determined by the amount of fatty tissue
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