Class Note for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
Class Note for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Lecture 21 01 November 2005 Glubal Climate Change Anuaiie Cunservatiun Conservation Biology ECOL 406R506R University of Arizona Fall 2005 Kevin Bonine Kathy Gerst There Will be a seminar un Wednesday Nuvernber 2 1pm in ESE zzs Thepresenterwill be Dr thllamw Shaw Schuul quatural Resuurces Umverslty qunzuna His Epic Win be The Santa Lueia Preserve innnvauve Cunservallun uf Nature furthe Rien and Farneius PH Fatally flawed storage system installed late 705 7 W Conservauon Biolo 406R 06R 1 Global Climate Change Research Example 2 Conservation of Aquatic Ecosystems Van Dyke Chapter 9 r Exam two returned on Thursday 2 The Treasures within Unanticipated Uses of Biological Collections Lucinda McDade Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia Why bother Specimens play major role in making systematics repeatable and thus an empirical science True whether flori tics revisionary work higher level phylogenetics Unanticipated uses Unanticipated uses of Museum Specimens of Museum Specimens not systematic biology 1 Phenology not geographic distributions 2 DNA almost conventionan not conservation biology 3 Historical Environmental Conditions not identification Amino Acid Enantiorners Leaf Stomatal Density these all vital but anticipated Carbon isotope Ratios Unanticipated uses of Museum Specimens 3 Historical Environmental Cond Leaf Stomatal Density Beerling and Chaloner1996 Annals ofBotany Stomates on Surface ofLeaves Funeraiwreams King Tut s Tomb Herbarlum KEN Density of Stomates l N I I E mquot I I With atmosphenc C02 E l 3 sun a t gtaooo years ofDlive leaves 5 t Olea europea 7 1300 BC to present 27 35quot M A as as an m mean Date Imimial u aeerhng and chaiener 1553 mullquotn imam Emanyl Unanticipated uses of Museum Specimens 3 Historical Environmental Conditions Carbon Isotope Ratios Black Guillemots Long term study 1972present George Divoky Results led to examination of causes mclimate change W Island snow free for 80 days only beginning in 70s Other ways birds might document climate change Because guillemots feed at edge of pack ice in winter Their bodies should reflect the location of that pack ice Divoky s 25 year study shows Birds arrive at nesting site two weeks earlier now Laying eggs 10 days earlier 7 Jul so Jun 2 mm 231w 16 Jun Median egg o Firstegg 9 J y quot1quot97u 197519501955 19501595 2000 2005 YEAR 6 Specifically More southerly seas more productive Translates to higher C13C12 ratio Therefore If pack ice and birds reduced in southerly expansion over time Detectable in C13C12 in birds you are what you eat C13C12 should decrease with time where to nd really old birds Notjust old but DATED PH Bird Collection Second oldest and fifth largest in the US Supports hypothesis that birds feeding farther south 100 yrs ago Consistent with I extends shorter term documentation of reduced extent of winter ice Also likely exacerbated by increase in atmospheric coz Burning fossil fueladds 51mm Divoky continuing project Latest Development Pack ice retreating farther to North in summer away mam island H PH has essentiall all Lewis amp Clark lant secimens 613C in Black Guillemot 18982000 in man iann 195D ZUDEI 2D5EI 2n VEAR Unanticipated uses of Museum Specimens 3 Other Chemical Constituents Carbon Isotope Ratios PH has essentially all of Meniweather Lewis plant specimens Collected 18041806 Lewis amp Clark Expedition Remarkable series of events brought them to PH see web she 22 Mark Teece studied C13C12 ratios in sample of LampC plants lulhxwm mmqulurlvmwtlnmulmilull mix A l me new Izmilm my luauum AYWmlmIFm an Mi Ix I W77 Burning fossil fuels adds gtgt612 Indeed C13C12 higher 200 years ago Obviously no direct measurements of atmospheric C13C12 data from 200 years ago Teece s results provide modern but prelndustrial Revolution baseline Extend record far back into time Con rm secular increase in C12 25 Aquatic Conservation VanDyke Chapter 9 Marine vs Freshwater de nition oflirnnology IFisheries IMariculture IHydrothermal Vents and other Benthic Examples IWetlands IEutrophication IRamsar Treaty other 1egis1ation Impact of Fisheries I 1940 s and 50 s 7 Fish stocks were seen as a renewable resource Where management could lead to a continual maximum sustainab1e yie1d every year I Today s outlook r 70 ofthe world s marine stocks have been classi ed as heavi1y exp1oited over exp1oited or depleted e 45 ofall species are overharvested The Treasures within Unanticipated Uses of Biological Collections Lucinda McDade Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia Threats to marine environments I Over shing and overhunting I Alteration of physical environment I Pollution I Introduction of non native species I Global climate change 22 Commercial Fisheries MSY Destructive shing technigues Habitat destruction Dredgingtrawling Bycatch Driftnetsdredgingtrawling Proposed solutions Banning certain shing techniques drift netting Requiring the use of devices such as TED s Lirniting the areatime ofcommercial engagernent Marine Reserves A shrimping crew cullsthebyrmtnh Gulfuf Maxim Cummercial marine sheries in the U s alunetussawayuptu 2n mum puunds cr byrmtch each yamvncc the cumma39cial and retreatmnal Etch cumbmed Rapid Worldwide mm Ec Mmehzrd l mmww decline of predator sh manila mmmum 551mm mam communities we RAM 19891990 Myers R A amp B Worm Nalure v 423 15May2003 Bycatch Sumng catch and byrcatch Bu 2 Whm mey conduded39 shnmpbuat deck Geurga 1986 Only 10 of large Shnmpa s tuwnets that cullect shnmp andmanyutherammalsmtharpath Red Predatory Sh are len Snapp er cruaker mackerel sea 1mm in the world s oceans sput dmmand uther shesnup m nine times mure than the shnmp mtnhnare dumped uverbuard shady dad my dying mm 141992 u as zrdWoxld 3 mm mm 22 m Tap onrawl n31 TED Cadend i i e g Destructlon of P O T Habltats Gmd d F IMNBM Tums In me net s quota quotg g 3222 4 O V39 k Inclined grid 0 O Of the TED g Escape hare V A 9 Turtle escapes from the net U D lt O D U1 3 Trawling damage coastal Pollution Most destructive shing method that is Widely used Endangers species that may not even be known yet 5 12723 w c znnz my mmmwmeesmmem Mamg Oxygen Depletion 12 mm mm Examples Fish production 7 Salmon 7 Tilapia aquatic chicken Oysters Giant Clam 41 Oxygen Depletion Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone39 Figui iize i i n l in Mariculture A part of the solution Benefits ef cient and effective reduced need to disturb natural systems perhaps more sustainable 39 Concerns Many of the same problems associated with terrestrial agriculture eg concentrated pollution and disturbance Increased supply could mean increased demand Pearl and oyster farming has been successful for centuries Loss of Wild populations of cultural amp historical importance w Salmon A Case Study Change chemistry of Water Escape into Wild populations 7 Compete with wild populations and win 7 contaminate gene pool no Hmi l n l a um 42 Giant Clams a mariculture example Includes nine species of marine clams often found on coral reefs Heavily exploited Large size means high demand as food Early life stages egg larval juvenile are raised in outdoor tanks eventually moved into containers in the ocean Large adulm are then grown in the open sea No apparent environmental harm increased fish diversity around clam colonies Efform to include locals in mariculture helps to avoid poaching of wild clams 43 Marine Protected Areas MPA World Conservation Union quotany area of the intertidal or subtidal terrain together with its overlying water and associated ora fauna historical and cultural features which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environmentquot AS Protected Marine Areas in the World Giant Clam A Case Study 0 Symbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae 0 No deleterious environmental effects 0 Big Success gt Increased Demand gt Exploitation of Wild Population gt Ban on International Trade Objectives Increase biodiversity To protect a representative sample of some or all of the habitats found within a region To reduce or prevent impacts from shing including population decline ecological impacts and habitat destruction Establish undisturbed areas as control or reference sites for scienti c research and shery assessment Prevent marine pollution by prohibiting industrial activities like oil drilling and mining Protect culturally important seascapes sites and artifacts 46 Benthic Communities and Hydrothermal Vents Modified from Bob Seaman Laura Marshall Dan Post Nicole Hallmark ECOL 406506 2004 42 Sea oor spreading MidAtlantic Ridge 39 First one discovered east of the Galapagos in 1977 l C Hydrothermal Life anlnl r 39 chemosynthesis instead of photosynthesis 39 Bacteria primary producers synthesize sugars from chemoautotrophy Hydrothermal Life and Conservation B enthic Community Areas of High Biodiversity Giant Worms Clams and Crabs 0099 Floor lulcl tida I191 Oceanic live off Archaeachemosynthes1s 0 Possible metapopulation m 39 39 39 3K 0 Habitat for relict spe01es 5 less affected by extinction events WE stable habitat Potential impacts mining energy conversion 4000 Abyssal b cmhic 5000 mum 53 Benthic Ecosystem Numem cydmg Manna Snuw Estimates ufmanne benthm spenes SUUkr l mxllmn Habitat sum maamwm mm mm Mbmamsny 10
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