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PSY 2150 Week 1 Notes

by: Ivy Lee

PSY 2150 Week 1 Notes PSY 2150

Marketplace > Vanderbilt University > Psychlogy > PSY 2150 > PSY 2150 Week 1 Notes
Ivy Lee
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About this Document

Lectures 1-3, covers chapters 1-2
Principles of Experimental Design
Elizabeth Sandberg
Class Notes
Psychology, Experimental Design, psych, Vanderbilt, Vandy, Lectures, logic




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivy Lee on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2150 at Vanderbilt University taught by Elizabeth Sandberg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Principles of Experimental Design in Psychlogy at Vanderbilt University.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
Week 1: January 13 – 20 Lectures 1- 3 Lecture 1 - Reading is overlearned, when we read things we don’t really absorb it in a meaningful way - The essence of science is a way of thinking - Knowledge acquired by intuition is not the most reliable Logic – Syllogism  If a  b and b  c, then a  c Valid conclusions: 1) Modus Ponens p  q If p then q If something is an apple, then it is a fruit p P is true The thing is an apple q Therefore, Q Therefore, it is an apple 2) Modus Tolens p  q If p then q If something is an apple, then it is a fruit Not q q is not true. The thing is not a fruit. Not p Therefore, p is not true Therefore, the thing is not an apple. Invalid conclusions/fallacies: 1) Denying the antecedent p  q If p then q If something is an apple, then it is a fruit Not p p is not true. The thing isn’t an apple Not q Therefore, q is not true. Therefore, the thing is not a fruit. 2) Affirming the consequent p  q If p then q If something is an apple, then it is a fruit q q is true The thing is a fruit P Therefore, p is true. Therefore, the thing is an apple. Lecture 2 – January 15 , 2016 Critical thinking: analyzing information to decide if it makes sense rather than just accepting it Goal: To get the truth, even if it means putting aside your ideas *** Truth and validity aren’t the same thing  logic doesn’t care about the truth  Look for hidden assumptions For example: If my astrologer is psychic, then she can predict fires My astrologer predicted fires She is psychic.  This is not valid because it is affirming the consequent Rationalism: using logic to derive new knowledge from old  Reliable conclusions can be derived from established facts if logic is used  Limitation: by itself, there is no way of verifying accuracy of facts (logic doesn’t have to be true, it just has to be logical) Deduce: general  specific.  You have a general rule and you use it to make a specific prediction  i.e. Gravity makes things fall; we can predict that when we drop things, they will fall. Induce: specific  general  We use specific examples to formulate a general rule/statement  i.e. Research Empiricism  Provide initial facts on which theories might rest to test predictions from theories by seeing if they are accurate Scopes Monkey Trial  In 1925, a high school biology teacher, John Scopes, was accused of teaching human evolution, which was illegal in state-funded schools in Tennessee at that time.  There was a conflict of teaching things that were inconsistent with religious beliefs  It was believed that anything written in the bible trumped human knowledge and scientific evidence  Scientific evidence for evolution couldn’t be admitted as evidence in the trial  It is human nature to get caught up in collective hysteria and to think protectively and not based on facts and knowledge, especially when those facts are not entirely accepted Scientific method:  Assumes the truth is discoverable  Is grounded in systematic empiricism  Addresses testable questions  Strives for accuracy + objectivity  Must involve clear definitions and operationalism th Lecture 3 – January 20 , 2016 P and q co-occur… [they are correlated]  This doesn’t mean they are causally related (doesn’t mean that P causes q)  This doesn’t mean that q causes p Correlation: one variable changes with respect to the other (can be negative or positive)  Our intuitions about causality are important for early cognitive development, and can be usedful in the real world  Soemtimes our intuitions get in the way of scientific discovery when you intuit a causal relation, it doesn’t mean that there is one Effect 1) Noun: an outcome a. i.e. Cause and effect, you will notice the effect later. 2) Verb: to bring about a. i.e. He effected a British accent. Affect 1) Verb: to influence a. i.e. Alcohol affects the liver. 2) Noun: a feeling a. A positive affect from the medication. Independent variables: variable thought to explain changes in the dependent variable  Can be manipulated (giving the same student different amounts of caffeine to drink in the morning) or natural existing levels (testing students who drink coffee vs. those who don’t) Dependent variables: affected by the independent variable  Anecdotal data (information gathered through stories of experiences)  Systematic data (quantitative data like from a survey)  Experimental data (controlled) IV affects something, DV is affected by something Freud:  Psychosexual theory development (stages)  Dream analysis / psychoanalysis  Id ego and super ego Theory: explains how and why variables are related  Freud’s “theory” explains everything, but predicts nothing  Religion explains things, but predicts nothing  People rely on religion and magic for things they can’t explain  A theory/ anything in science is TESTABLE  Theories are simplified framework for explaining complex phenomena o Learning is broken down into operational conditioning and observational learning  A theory must be falsifiable and testable o You want to look for counter-examples Hypothesis in science:  Formed through induction  prior research findings (evidence)  Formed through deduction  existing theories  Good hypotheses are… o Testable, specific, supported by research that tests it Phases of research  cycle


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