Class Note for ECOL 482 at UA
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Homeostasis Chapter 7 Endocrine nmnm rltlmmlalPltmPrmP mmmmmmmq gm ADH pmmmemnsmpum nrmmumueywhmes mum r shmulalei gmwm hmulates develnpmmt ufrmmrcary giands and seamnnufmlk Mm 75mm Hnmlnne r sumaws mummy u fmelamn ThyrnitlStixmm ng Hnmm Ac39nr Psir ur Gnmdqulim l l l Tnmmnr mnau nu ma Cu u39ml mm 51 Mm vds Sex Hummm mm mm mthetlunul 591mm muzestaune FSH gimme gamerepmumm y gum LH stimulan arm human Euduchnn Endocrine System Pituitary 3 parts Neurohypophysis release chemicals water loss vasotocin amp isotocin regulatory releasing factors effect other parts Pars intermedia Adenohypophysis pars distalis prolactin osmoregulation Growth ACTH release cortisteroids MSH color Endocrine System Hypothalamus controls pituitary Caudal Neuroendocrine System Urophysis caudal end spinal cord 2 Urotensins osmoregulation amp steroid Reproduction control Wquot 5 Bmill L39enlo rs Mat Endocrine System Thyroid small cells makes Thyrogtltin lnterrenal cells adrenal like cells Two cell types chromaf n epinephrine amp norepinephrine and steroid producing cells controls metabolism w costeroids Autonomic Nervous System poor in agnathans but well developed in teleosts along either side of spine controls involuntary functions Homeostasis Chapter 7 Autonomic Nervous System poor in agnathans but well developed in teleosts along either side of spine controls involuntary functions Homeostasis Chapter 7 Thermal regulation Cold blooded vs warm blooded Poikilotherm vs Homeotherm fish change temp but water more stable Ectotherms vs Endotherms Most same temperature as water ectotherms most fish v Endotherms some fish temperature vs metabolic rate eg high metabolic costs Homeostasis Chapter 7 Endo hermic Fish Scombrids and Lamnidae mackeral amp Alopiidae thresher Sharks Heat lost at gills bring body to external temperature in tunas etc cooled blood to outside countercurrent Rete mirabile blood warmed by muscle activity and heat transferred to cool blood moving to muscles oxygenated blood is warmed heat not lost but returned to muscle In thunniform swimming sh more red cells medial less heat loss Also rete mirabile on liver associated w gut Also warm parts ofthe CNS especially brains and eyes regional endothermyquot Eye muscles have lost the ability to contract now produce heat Also rete system near eyes Homeostasis Chapter 7 Thermal regulation Acclimation coping with temperature fluctuations Metabolic rate can be dependent or independent on temperature effects seasonality Heat Shock Proteins Alternate enzymes systems isozymes vs alternate forms of enzymes from alternate gene forms allozymes Cellular or Tissue level changes Muscleshearfjliver villi can all change Homeostasis Chapter 7 Thermal regulation High and low temperature coping with temperature extremes Water freezes at 0 seawater at 187 but densest at 4 degrees sh freeze at 7 so freshwater sh are protected but salt water sh have problem Supercooled and do not encounter ice crystals Some biological antifreeze glycoproteins INCREASE CONCENTRATIONS OF OSMOLYTES Homeostasis Chapter 7 Thermal Preferences and habitat selection select best habitat for growth and reproduction good link of physiology and behaviorecology Osmoregulation 4 Strategies Osmoregulation Most fish stenohaline very narrow salt tolerance but Diadromous part freshwater part salt fish Iampreys salmon eels Euryhaline wide tolerance for salt Anadromy adults spawn in fresh juvs to salt Catadromy adults spawn at sea move to fresh and return to sea to spawn Amphidromy Spawning either freshwater or saltwater Examples of Diadromous Fish Anadromous Lampreys sturgeons herring salmon smelts icefice gobies sea catfish soles sticklebacks cods sculpin Catadromous Eels scorpionfish galaxiids temperate basses snooks mullets righteye flounders Amphidromous grayling whitebaits galaxiicls herrings sculpins sandperches sleepers pipefish Osmoregulation 4 Strategies 43121quot Four major strategies 1 Nothing Hagiish all marine and WW stenohaline tolerate narrow range Have release salt concentration about equal to seawater only vertebrate to do so 2 Marine elasmohranches and coelacanths Osmoregulation 4 Strategies Freshwater vs Saltwater Fourmajorstrategies H10 t MW 39 2 Marine elasmobranches and WWIquot Coelacanthslnorganic salt egg concentrationsequalabout13seawater J5 lgt like most verts but organic salts Urea and trimethylamine Oxide TMAO brings total salt concentration up to seawater F rainwater rlr Smiwirer rlr Osmoregulation 4 Strategies 3 Marine Teleosts Internal salt concentration 13 sea water operates Hyposmotically lose water to diffusion Replace water by continually drinking then special cells Chloride cells in gill filaments amp opercular skin epithelia eliminate salt via active transport Osmoregulation 4 Strategies Marine Teleosts 1 Loses water through gills and skin 2 gains water and salt by drinking 3 Removes salt via chloride cells 4 Salt lost via feces 5 Salt and little water lost via minute urine 6 Fewer and smaller glomeruli reabsorb glucoseproteins in convoluted tubules Osmoregulation 4 Strategies 4 Freshwater teleosts and some elasmobranches Hyperosmotically blood conc greater than H20 they gain water by diffusion Well developed kidneys excrete large amounts of dilute urine 33 body weight per day controlled by blood pressure Salts are taken up primarily through the gills ions pumped inwards chloride cells Osmoregulation 4 Strategies Freshwater teleosts 1 absorb waterthrough gills and skin 2 obtain salts through chloride cells and with food 3 removes water via copious dilute urine 512 body weight Numerous large glomeruli and reabsorbs salts along convoluted tubules Gill filament Chloride Cells SEA WATER SIRqu 779m eu Na Q mikehondna t K4377 lviu l Inmucmlrllml lmm llmLlcpxlllclnuuul II pr lll39ulllmllm Sumlllllln lullgmlllllml wclmll N 5 nl39gllll llmucluu mmmmmimbluc CCnlllorldcrcllll vtpnclllrlalccll rlllllll wmnu slum l m K u um INTERNAL
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