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BIOL 1114-001, Week 1 notes

by: Naomi Matsumoto

BIOL 1114-001, Week 1 notes BIOL 1114, 001

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > Biology > BIOL 1114, 001 > BIOL 1114 001 Week 1 notes
Naomi Matsumoto

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About this Document

These notes cover the characteristics of life.
Intro to zoology
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naomi Matsumoto on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Intro to zoology in Biology at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
Chapter 1 Intro to Zoology The Characteristics of Life  Cells – basic unit of life  Every organism, or living individual, consists of one or more cells  Cells use DNA to produce proteins What is life? Is it a trivial question? All life shares five characteristics  Organization; Energy; Maintenance for internal constancy; Reproduction, Growth, and Development; Evolution Elements of organic molecules; life is organized  Atom – the smallest chemical unite of a type of pure substance (element)  Molecule – a group of joined atoms (chemical bonds) EX: DNA, RNA, protein  Organelle – a membrane-bounded structure that has a specific function within a cell EX: Chloroplast (photosynthesis)  Cell – fundamental unit of life EX: leaf cell, skin cell, muscle cell  Tissue – a collection of multiple specialized cells that function in a coordinated fashion EX: epidermis of leaf  Organ – a structure consisting of multiple tissues organized to interact and carry out specific functions EX: leaf, bicep  Organ systems – multiple organs connected physically or chemically that function together EX: aboveground part of a plant  Organism – a single living individual Why is organization important?  Endothelial cell  Sheet of endothelial cells  Capillary (blood vessel) Emergent properties arise at each level of biological organization. The capillary has properties that its components lack. Energy Life requires energy Figure 1.4 Energy from sunlight  heat Heat is lost every time energy is transferred Maintenance of internal constancy  Homeostasis – the process by which a cell or organism maintains equilibrium  A thermostat is an analogy for how life maintains internal constancy.  Homeostasis is not just about temperature tough. Other examples: nutrient, salt, and water Reproduction, growth, and development  Reproduction is either asexual or sexual.  Asexually reproduction produces identical offspring* o *unless there is a random mutation in the DNA  Strawberry plants sometimes reproduce asexually. Each of  Asexual reproduction is a successful strategy in unchanging environments.  In sexual reproduction, offspring receive genetic material from two parents.  Sexual reproduction is successful in changing environments, since offspring are unlike either parent. This leads to more diversity in your offspring. Evolution  Pygmy seahorses that blend in best will survive.  Grow up to reproduce offspring that blend in even better.  Over many generations they seem to “blend in perfectly.”  Until, the environment changes! Natural selection Bacteria evolve rapidly. The Tree of Life Includes Three Main Branches  Taxonomy – the scientific study of naming and classifying organisms  Domain bacteria (lacks nucleus), domain archaea (lacks nucleus), domain eukarya o Species are broadly categorized into one of three domains.  Pro – before; karyote – nucleus  Eu – true; karyote – nucleus  Domain bacteria and archaea are prokaryotic and unicellular Figure 1.9  Domain eukarya  Protista (multiple kingdoms) EX: seaweed salad o Unicellular or multicellular o Autotrophs (photosynthesize) or heterotrophs  Kingdom Animalia (humans) o Multicellular o Heterotrophs (by ingestion)  Kingdom Fungi o Most are multicellular o Heterotrophs (by external digestion)  Kingdom Plantae o Multicellular o Autotrophs Consider the fact that we were once a single cell. Levels of Organization (mnemonic)  Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species


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