BIOL 1114-001, Week 1 notes
BIOL 1114-001, Week 1 notes BIOL 1114, 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naomi Matsumoto on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Intro to zoology in Biology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Chapter 1 Intro to Zoology The Characteristics of Life Cells – basic unit of life Every organism, or living individual, consists of one or more cells Cells use DNA to produce proteins What is life? Is it a trivial question? All life shares five characteristics Organization; Energy; Maintenance for internal constancy; Reproduction, Growth, and Development; Evolution Elements of organic molecules; life is organized Atom – the smallest chemical unite of a type of pure substance (element) Molecule – a group of joined atoms (chemical bonds) EX: DNA, RNA, protein Organelle – a membrane-bounded structure that has a specific function within a cell EX: Chloroplast (photosynthesis) Cell – fundamental unit of life EX: leaf cell, skin cell, muscle cell Tissue – a collection of multiple specialized cells that function in a coordinated fashion EX: epidermis of leaf Organ – a structure consisting of multiple tissues organized to interact and carry out specific functions EX: leaf, bicep Organ systems – multiple organs connected physically or chemically that function together EX: aboveground part of a plant Organism – a single living individual Why is organization important? Endothelial cell Sheet of endothelial cells Capillary (blood vessel) Emergent properties arise at each level of biological organization. The capillary has properties that its components lack. Energy Life requires energy Figure 1.4 Energy from sunlight heat Heat is lost every time energy is transferred Maintenance of internal constancy Homeostasis – the process by which a cell or organism maintains equilibrium A thermostat is an analogy for how life maintains internal constancy. Homeostasis is not just about temperature tough. Other examples: nutrient, salt, and water Reproduction, growth, and development Reproduction is either asexual or sexual. Asexually reproduction produces identical offspring* o *unless there is a random mutation in the DNA Strawberry plants sometimes reproduce asexually. Each of Asexual reproduction is a successful strategy in unchanging environments. In sexual reproduction, offspring receive genetic material from two parents. Sexual reproduction is successful in changing environments, since offspring are unlike either parent. This leads to more diversity in your offspring. Evolution Pygmy seahorses that blend in best will survive. Grow up to reproduce offspring that blend in even better. Over many generations they seem to “blend in perfectly.” Until, the environment changes! Natural selection Bacteria evolve rapidly. The Tree of Life Includes Three Main Branches Taxonomy – the scientific study of naming and classifying organisms Domain bacteria (lacks nucleus), domain archaea (lacks nucleus), domain eukarya o Species are broadly categorized into one of three domains. Pro – before; karyote – nucleus Eu – true; karyote – nucleus Domain bacteria and archaea are prokaryotic and unicellular Figure 1.9 Domain eukarya Protista (multiple kingdoms) EX: seaweed salad o Unicellular or multicellular o Autotrophs (photosynthesize) or heterotrophs Kingdom Animalia (humans) o Multicellular o Heterotrophs (by ingestion) Kingdom Fungi o Most are multicellular o Heterotrophs (by external digestion) Kingdom Plantae o Multicellular o Autotrophs Consider the fact that we were once a single cell. Levels of Organization (mnemonic) Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
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