PSYC 160, Week 1 and 2 Notes
PSYC 160, Week 1 and 2 Notes PSYC 160
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Dowell on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 160 at James Madison University taught by Kristen Davidson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Life Span Human Development in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Chapter One Section 1.1 01/13/16 1. Life Span Development a. Insight into ourselves and others b. Knowledge i. Why do people behave/respond this way? 2. Development a. Growth b. Decline c. Many fields study it d. 3 different domains: i. Biological/physical 1. Brain development, hormones, muscles 2. Can we alter genetic development? Answer: yes ii. Psychological/cognitive 1. Intelligence, memory, judgement iii. Psychosocial 1. Influence of family, culture, society We’re studying Bio-psychosocial 3. Stages of Development a. Prenatal st i. 1 stage ii. Starts at conception, ends at birth b. Infancy to toddlerhood i. Birth to age 3 ii. Includes rolling over, lifting head, crawl = motor skills c. Preschool i. Ages 3 to 6 ii. Includes following instructions, learning the alphabet d. Middle childhood i. Ages 6 to 12 ii. Includes reading, writing, math iii. Self-achievement e. Adolescence i. Ages 12 to 20 ii. Includes rapid physical changes, hormones iii. Searching for a sense of independence f. Young adulthood i. Ages 20 to 40 ii. Includes economic changes, marriage, kids g. Middle adulthood i. Ages 40 to 65 ii. Includes increase in personal and social involvement, career stability h. Late adulthood i. Ages 65+ ii. Includes retirement, physical deterioration, death 4. Assessing Bio-physical Development a. 2 debates i. Continuous (gradual) vs. Discontinuous (stages) ii. Nature (genetics) vs. Nurture (environment) b. Development Characteristics i. Lifelong – does not end at childhood ii. Multidimensional iii. Influenced by many things, like culture iv. Ethnicity, race, finances Section 1.3 01/20/16 1. Influences a. Cohort- group of people born around the same time and place b. History graded – group of people born around same historical event (ex. Vietnam War, 9/11, Great Depression) c. Age graded – environmental and biological (ex. puberty, menopause) d. Sociocultural – growing up in different economic classes 2. Collecting Data a. Surveys – over the phone, mail i. Problem: people lie b. Case study – studying just one person i. Problem: can’t compare data c. Observation – natural or lab d. Standardized testing i. Problem: bad test takers 3. Research Designs a. Experiments – influence behavior by manipulation; cause and effect i. Independent variable – gets manipulated ii. Dependent variable – depends on independent b. Correlation – does not = cause and effect; how two things relate i. Height and weight ii. Test scores and tv iii. Wealth and education c. Descriptive – observing and recording behavior d. Cross sectional – studying age differences e. Longitudinal – following same group for prolonged time i. A minimum of one year f. Sequential – studying different age groups at different times 4. Important! – has to be ETHICAL and Biased Free a. Truthful b. Review boards Section 1.2 1. Theories of Development a. Psychoanalytic theory – interested in unconscious mind and how it influences our behavior i. Sigmund Freud 1. Id – present at birth; unconscious impulses to meet needs; pleasure 2. Ego – toddlers; rational and reasonable; reality 3. Superego – Ages 4 to 6; keeps id in check; right and wrong ii. Freud 1. Founder of psychoanalytic theory 2. Doctor and neurologist 3. Jewish and trying to fit in Viennese society 4. Large family, constantly replaced by new sibling; adored mother 5. Interested in how we repress frustration – jokes, Freudian slips 6. Particularly interested in dreams 7. Biology and psychology combined 8. Bases his theory while treating patients and believed origin of our symptoms are in our mind a. Ex. woman was sexually abused as a teen and now experiences pain during intercourse b. Psychosexual theory of development i. 5 stages 1. Oral: birth to 12-18 months a. sucking, eating b. We become transfixed if needs are not met, such as having a hard time trusting others in the future 2. Anal: 12-18 months to 3 years a. Potty training b. How parents reward and discipline effects our behavior 3. Phallic (genitals): 3 to 5-6 years a. No such thing as penis jealousy in women 4. Latency: 5-6 years to adolescence a. Fitting in b. Social and intellectual pursuit 5. Genital: adolescence to adulthood a. Sexual reawakening ii. Fixation occurs if we don’t get enough or too much gratification
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