Class Note for ECOL 482 with Professor Reinthal at UA
Class Note for ECOL 482 with Professor Reinthal at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Early Life History and Growth Chapters 9 amp 10 2 growth traits set fish apart from other vertebrates Indeterminate Growth continual increase in length and volume Larval Stage larval stage usually bears little resemblance to juvenile or adult 39ndet et size age Adult Larval Juvenile size Agt size Agt time gt time gt Early Life History Gametogenesis Gametogenesis S ermato enesis Tes is I 0quot p g Speiiiiai ogoniiim Oogonium sperm very iiwsls i Meiosis Initiation variable Spermaiocyte Oogenesis ti oocytes w yolk Vitellogenesis yolk granules Fi eiosi I N FT t E C E w 2 w 3 2 o x Spermatogenesis Fertilization Early Life History Fecundity 2 Fecundity number of eggs released by a female 1 or 2 up to millions depends on life history v Fertility sh reabsorb unused eggs Figure 4 Relationship between fecundity and SI for 2 c melanurizs collected oifNC 30000 Aug 1999 Jul 2000 Aug 20022003 F mrmssL252 R2 018 n 53 150 130 200 220 240 Standard Length mm 250 230 Early Life History Fecundity 2 Fertility v Fecundity based on egg counts Most marine fishes pelagic and external fertilization Most Freshwater parental carebottom or vegetation or nests Demersal laid on bottom Early Life History Reproductive Effort 3 Reproductive Effort and Activity Look at eggs instantaneous versus cumulative measures Instantaneous vs Cumulative Gonadosomatic index GSI usually weight 5 cichlids salmonids 20 30 to 47 eels males much lower Early Life History Reproductive Effort 3 Gonadosomatic index Goodfortotal spawners a Underestimates Il M repeatbatchor serials awners p 2 8 5 mm Early Life History Fertilization 4 Fertilization external in most internal in all sharks and a few bony families Some poeciliid live bearers gynogenetic use other males sperm to activate Internal requires males have intromittent organ claspers gonopodium Early Life History Embryology 5 Embryology after fertilization Chorion hardens water hardening Early Life History Embryology 5 Embryology Oviparous egg laying Viviparous develop inside mother live bearing about half 500 Chondricthyes 500 2 bony Ovoviviparity inside mother but depend on yolk Development depends on temperature etc causes meristic variation usually colder means more scales fin rays and vertebrae Early Life History Embryology 5 Embryology Meristic Variation Development depends on temperature etc causes meristic variation Jordan s rule latitude effects on meristic numbers usually colder means more scales fin rays and vertebrae opposite guppies and plaice V relationship fewer at intermediate Early Life History 6 Larvae Free embryo free swimming young with yolk sac alevin to Fry planktonic food 6 Larvae Early Life History Direct v indirect development larval stage brief or nonde nable miniature versus distinct metamorphosis Eye migration a A 1quot P911 c Benthic symet ric larvae asymerric adult Early Life History 6 Larvae Larval Feeding and Survival Food very important right after yolk stage important for population dynamics of commercial species most larvae die in first week from starvationpredation Critical Period Hypothesis Point of No Return Early Life History 6 Larvae Larval Feeding Match Phytoplankton peak and Survival MatchMismatch Hypothesis Mismatch Daphnid peak Phytoplankton peak i Daphnld peak Early Life History 6 Larvae Growth More later under bioenergetics Gross Growth Efficiency weight increase to weight food Assimilation Efficiency food actually used Early Life History 6 Larvae Larvae usually not like adult spines large fins etc for antipredator protection as fish get older larger usually less risk of predation Ecological physiological and behavioral competence all improve Movement of larvae interestingdebated many marine fish spawn off shore Larvae move inshore to weed bedsestuaries etc wind driven currents tides etc Individuals Life Histories amp Growth Chapter 10 Juveniles to Adults Growth 1 Juvenile when larval features lost vs miniature adult Growth metamorphosis Growth change is size body material Life History Characters Age and size at maturation Early v late tradeoff More eggs older but may die first younger fewer eggs and reduced growth and weaker state if they decide to reproduce Fish under heavy predation reproduce soonen Growth and Age Growth any change in size or amount of body material regardless of whether that change is positive or negative or temporary or long lasting Growth energetically change in calories stored as somatic or gonad tissue will discuss later 10 Metamorphosis Lampreys ammocoetes to adult Asymmetric flatfish Depression dorsal ventral flat v Compression lateral flat li Incomplete ossification and rotation lii Left eye flounders sinistral lv Right eye flounders dextral Metamorphosis Smoltification salmonids fresh to saltwater Redds eggs alevins egg sac fry parr w parr marks after monthsyears go downstream smolts Countershade silvery Streamline loss lipids more buoyant inc gas volume hemoglobins change gill structure inc chloride cells reverse rheotaxis imprint odor Hormonal control most changes If don t get to sea they revert to parr and mature quickly 1 yr 11 Growth and Age For Time T1 to T2 With Sizes Y1 and Y2 1 Absolute Growth Y2 Y1 2 Absolute Growth Rate Y2 Y1 T2 T1 3 Relative Growth Y2 Y1 Y1 4 Relative Growth Rate Y2 Y1 Y1 T2 T1 Linear process but if exponential use instantaneous growth rates GlogeY2 logeY1T2 T1 12 Length Versus Age Growth Curves Fit model to curve von Bertalanffy growth equation Gompertz equation Lt Lmagtlt1 e gl T time units tx t0 Lt length at time t Lmagtlt maximum length 9 growth coefficient e base natural log Model Equations 13 size 4 Quantification of Size Changes Growth 1 Body length standard length SL fork length FL total length TL size gt time gt lime gt Quantification of Size Changes Growth Weight traditional measure growth amp production Mass amp Length Easy to do W aLb where b usually 25 to 30 WlogablogL Good more accurate as sh get larger gt or lt 3 means positive or negative allometric growth Bad transient water lipids gonads stomach l4 Other Quantification size changes K condition factor for sh K WL3 Some use Wet v Dry weight v Ash Weight e n 5a m m x Fisk LENGTH SL mm 4 pinK2 maxim Other Quantification of size changes Proximate Analysis categories of compounds in a mixture 1 Carbohydrates low not typical 2 Proteins W MW over 1000 3 Lipids good indicator 15 Scale and Allometry Scale and Allometry as fish grow dimensions of the body change non Hnear Types of Change Dimension change add mass length Material change cart to bone Design change anguilliform to carangiform swim Estimations of Growth in Natural Populations Remember most techniques developed in temperate populations 16 Estimate Growth in Natural Populations Length Frequency Distribution in identi able cohorts Peterson Method Assume cohorts cluster around mean Advantages easy to collect data Low tech anyone can do need ruler or measuring board Disadvantage Hard to analyze data Bad in continuously breeding populations tropics better for young 120 030 060 Selection 040 020 000 u 45 so 55 so as m 75 so as 90 PhD 1mm an Estimations Growth in Nat Populations Back calculation Bony parts carry record of growth otoliths vertebrae fin spines scales other hard body parts Advantages Good data Disadvantages expensive time opaqumne consuming caution in ring lt539 We939 mquotl lt interpretation tropical no quot annual marks need all size and age classes translucent zone taster growth 17 Estimate Growth in Natural Populations Mark Recapture recovering marked fish of known age Tagging clip ns paint tetracycline pit tags disks flags magnetic implants Good data Expensive time consuming esp in large systems wpoor returns tags influence difficult recapture Estimate Growth in Natural Populations Raise in controlled environment Growth Rate 100 logvelogeWitfti Good for aquaculture 18 Growth Usually annual Daily in small sh a FrasierLee L a bS b Regression c Covariance d Linear model approach Bioenergetics Model Consumption Metabolism Respiration Wastes Excreted Growth Production CMEG 19 Bioenergetics Model CMEG C M respiration active metabolism SDA specific dynamic action E egestion excretion G somatic growth gonad production RASFUBG Bioenergetics Model C M E G Mass Balance Approach Environmental Stress Growth down if C decreases or M increases 20 Bioenergetics Model C M E G Consumption proportion of maximum daily ration for fish at particular mass and temperature maximum rate g of prey per g body mass per day Bioenergetics Model CMEG Temperature dependence of consumption Different functions 21 Bioenergetics Model CMEG Respiration is also dependent upon fish size temperature and activity Different functions Bioenergetics Model CMEG Egestion and Excretion is constant proportion of consumption or as function of temperature and consumption Different functions 22 Bioenergetics Model Scaling Individuals to Populations Cohort group of similar sized aged fish of the same species experiencing the same environmental conditions temperature diet growth and reproductive losses Combine cohorts for population Bioenergetics Model Population Mortality Mortality important population process Natural and fishing 23
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