Class Note for NATS 101 at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Satellite Imagery How would you describe the cloud and humidity conditions over the state of Arizona a clear little water vapor X b clear lots of water vapor c partly cloudy lots of water vapor d partly cloudy little water vapor Go to Visualization gt Temperature amp Heat Basic Concepts Temperature A measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance the average speed of the atoms and molecules comprising a substance Absolute Zero Lowest possible temperature 0 Kelvin 273 C 459 F No thermal motion Minimal amount of energy Heat A measure of the total kinetic energy of a substance the total energy of molecular motion thermal energy Internal Energy Is there energy in this glass of water Microscopic kinetic energy No apparent is part of energy to the internal energy eye Molecular attractive forces are also associated with internal energy Kinetic Energy of Gas Kinetic energy of gas molecules increases when heated as shown in this example HIM Low Temperamre High Temperature hup Hehemeei chempurdue etingemhemInpinmviewbpchiheat htrniwiaueni 1 Kinetic Energy 4 1 Velocity 4 tTemperature Creating Heat Before After NASAWAD 577 we hup lcuulcusmns lpac smashsuncumulussmumughuessunsManual1122mm 1 Bouncing a ball converts mechanical energy into thermal energy heat Creating Heat Hairdrver Lightbulb 1162 mu an NASAWAC hup llmulcusm s lpac smasheducusmmjlassmumughuessunsManual1122mm 2 Examples of electrical energy being converted into thermal energy heat Creating Heat 3 Earth warms when sun s radiation is converted into thermal energy heat 4 Chemical energy is converted into heat when we eat 5 A warm object touching a colder object transfers thermal energy from one object to another heat transfer More examples Temperature vs Heat Which contains the most heat a boiling pot of water or a very large iceberg k caherg ahhhsleaming ea 539quot The total heat content in 500 mL 05 kg Suppose a you were to cool a 1000000 of boiling water in a tea pot can be ton iceberg 109 kg to absolute zero approximated by determining how much You could approximate the heat energy energy would be removed in order to cool removed from the iceberg in order to do it to absolute zero Although the boiling this While the iceberg is relatively cold water has a relatively high temperature it low temperature it contains an contains relatively little heat energy enormous amount of heat energy relative to the boiling water in the tea pot 1thcoolcosmosipaccaltechedncosmiciclassroomlightilessousthermaldifferhtml Temperature Scales K C Fahrenheit Scale F early 5 7 1700s 32 water freezes 212 ass 7 7 so 7 water boils 180 equal divisions in between are units of F 303 7 7 30 7 Celsius Scale C late 1700s 0 water freezes 100 water boils A 100 equal divisions in between are units of 0 1 C 2 233 7 7 7A0 7 C 59 F 32 32 22 203 7 7 77D 7 133 7 7 7am 7 Kelvin Scale K 1K 1 C0 K was 7 7 7w 7 is 273 C absolute zero m K 2 C 273 6 ms Thomson mam 212 194 we 7 153 14D 122 7 104 Bowling pom olwater at sea level SEC 136 F Highest lemperaluve recorded m the wand El Azma Libya Septembev 1922 A hot day Avevage body temperature 37 C 98 s F Average room temperature Freezing memng pom 0 water me at sea level A bittercold day 439 C 712 Lowest lempevalure recorded m the world Voslok Amarcuca July 1983 Fig 21 p27 Latent Heat Latent heat is consumed When converting a substance from a more ordered to a less ordered phase phase change Substance undergoing phase change remains at a constant temperature Why does evaporation liquid to vapor cool liquid water remaining behind not converted to vapor gt The most energetic highest kinetic energy water molecules escape as vapor gt The least energetic molecules are left behind in the liquid lowering the average kinetic energy of the liquid and thus lowering its temperature Sensible vs Latent Heat More than 200 years ago 100 Joseph Black distinguished 5135quot between sensible heat and EU 7777777 L777 latent heat EEO I d Heat that raises the quot40 L temperature of the system can 5 be sensed but heat that results 20 in a change in the state of the O i tEQ system from solid to liquid or isquot V from liquid to gas is latent 20 mm 0 2 4 s E ID Timamm http Hehemed chem purdue edugemhemltupmrevieulbpch heathtmlltlamnt Heat energy taken from environment 620 m i 540 Melting Evaporation A F quuld Condensation ice reezmg W Vapor 620 Heat energy released to environment 1 calorie heats 1 g liquid water by 1 C It takes 540 cal to evaporate the liquid enough to bring water from freezing to boiling 5X over This latent heat is released When water vapor condenses again Conduction Conduction Primary method of heat transfer in solids Conductivity Rate of heat transfer across a 1 cm thick substance if one side is maintained 1 C warmer than the other Heat ow 1 C 1cm I Iron 1 Water I Arr 0 C Mat enal Heat Conductivity Watts per m per C Still Air 0023 20 C Dry Soil 025 Water 060 20 C Wet soil 21 Ice 21 Granite 27 Iron 80 Conduction A copper rod connects two insulated beakers containing equal amounts of identical liquids The temperature of Beaker A is 85 C and the temperature in Beaker B is 15 C Over the next 60 seconds What Will occur a Beaker B Will warm to 85 C b BeakerA Will cool to 15 C c Beaker A Will cool to 15 C and Beaker B Will warm to 85 C IN 9 Beaker A Will cool to 50 C and Beaker B Will warm to 50 C Insulated hEEIkE39I S wwwexporeearningcom Convection Convection The transfer of heat by the mass movement of a uid such as water or air Thermal Air currents Q M x cmmmmnammw Fig 25 130 Convection Convection Only occurs in uids liquids and gases because these phases of a substance allow free movement of molecules only occurs because of gravity term for the rising and sinking part of the convective Circulation in meteorology Advection The horizontal movement of air properties by the wind The wind can advect moisture from one region to another in the atmosphere In this way latent heat can be released downstream from where the evaporation occurred Convection and adveetion are important mechanisms for redistributing heat energy in the atmosphere Rising Air Cools Sinking Air Warms 2 Energy used to expand the parcel reduces the kinetic energy of the parcel molecules cooling the parcel 2 1 3 lt Cold 7 r 1 a 3 Cool Parcel of air 00039 1 Parcel ofair originating at the surface has greater pressure than surrounding air as it rises consequently it expands until it reaches equilibrium with its environment 3 A sinking parcel gains energy from the surrounding air increasing its temperature and compressing its size p31 Radiation Radiation Energy in the form of electromagnetic waves which transfer heat to a substance by being absorbed by the substance Molecules are not needed to propagate these waves in this way radiation differs from conduction and convection gt Every object loses heat by radiating electromagnetic waves gt Hotter objects radiate more energy per unit of surface area than cooler objects and at shorter wavelengths yellow 058 urn red 068 urn dark body 10 urn gt Radiation from the sun provides the heat energy that drive all atmospheric motions creating weather and climate Electromagnetic Spectrum Energy the sun radiates is represented by the curve V131b1e Mght U1travwo1et Near mfrared Far mfrared chrowaves TV waves Short radwo Waves AMrad10 Waves 37 11 LESS than 1 1 P g 1 O 4 O 7 1 O 1 5 O 001 1 10 100 Wave19ngth um Wavebngth m 7 Radwahon mtenswty amount 4 mums mmwn svnnknlca1a Fig 21 134 The sun radiates more energy than the cooler eaIth and at shorter wavelengths 9 max 4 OJ X 2 E 1 5 1 0 CL 6 A E E 3 6X107 0 N The sun o i 6000K d3 5 5 3 4x107 m E n 5 g E 7 The earth 3 5 2x10 Amax 288K CL 5 16 gtgt E 8 a0 ct g 04 05 08 07 0 5 1015 20 L11 Wavelength um W 7 Shortwave radiation A nggfo f Wavelength gt WWW mm Fig 28 p34 The Three Modes of Heat Transfer Bo ng water shows how heat travels Cnnduclion Convullnn nalIlaquot munawzmmeamymeeo l s mx mlranslumhaalhymnl Wmermmbymrmbm mm ecmas Memme Heal mvememmlhe new mm HEEL iammmmum very wnlLAiven mymam are Mammogm many use name A Warm m pmrheuwndumls eonvscnwf u mlevlnunamdnwn mvson mesmmmeEam mm ul an They use macaw m sesame m mum mournm I l I M 39 39 VIE sava39shslicamsmmhsin Axwllwlnlm mmull enan Emmnaummveyme numrsmmmmsmw mmu memmms um ummmlmeheatwmiw making a my These v brmmg mmmm m wan 1mm mmmma pm yrs mmmmmm may amuse mmmwmmm munmmmmmu quotslamming malecuhm mak w mam sumumm wim Wa ersnk 1mm mus Hm 10 mm a gym we replace me nslnghuhmss m m e Dan s n aura Isupam um mvamanl I mummy 50135 mm M In much warmltu hams MI W walar The Wantw Book39 p 19 Methods of atmospheric heat transfer summary um mred39rgdlanan by Hi0 and 002 Cornscum Cunductmn am quot112an aromazi Fig 211 139 Fate of the sun s energy upon entering the earth s atmosphere Earth s arbedo 30100 30 re ected hcomrhg ahd scattered sotar radratroh tOO Uhtts 4 20 6 Atmo here u Top of atmosphere Qon 0 19 absorbed by atmosphere and crouds Earth surface 51 absorbed at surtace mmmmmmar Fig 213 141 Albedo ow much Inllr unargv II nllnela hick Into upncn Albedo 7 The fraction of solar radiation that is re ected off rather than absorbed by or transmitted through an object Global Energy Balance Net incoming solar radiation balances net outgoing IR globally Balance Batance I I The equator gains more 33970 3V0 solar energy than the poles I De ctt I I gt Atmosphere and ocean it Heat Hem U currents transfer energy 9 E g I I poleward cooling the go I 09 I tropics and warrmng the I I I I I I I POICS 90 60 30 0 so 60 90 North Latitude South Fig 221 p48 n ma Mome A gramme
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