Chapter 1: Biopsychology as a Neuroscience
Chapter 1: Biopsychology as a Neuroscience Pysch 378
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Banks on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pysch 378 at Radford University taught by Jeff Willner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Brain and Behavior in Psychlogy at Radford University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Chapter 1: Biopsychology as Neuroscience Thinking Creatively o Thinking productive, unconventional ways is the cornerstone of any science Clinical Implications o Pertaining to illness or treatment o Considerations are woven through fabric of biopsychology o Two aspects: Functioning of the brain comes from studying the diseased or damaged brain Relevance for the treatment of brain disorders o Focus on the interplay between brain dysfunction and biopsychological research Evolutionary Perspective o Is the comparative approach (trying to understand biological phenomena by comparing them in different species) What is Biopsychology o Is the scientific study of the biology of behavior o Focus is on how the brain and other portions of the nervous system relate to behavior and psychological processes o It also includes studies of evolution, genetics, and the adaptive functions of behavior Comparative Approach o The study of biological processes by comparing different species Experiments o Between-subjects design A experimental design in which a different group of subjects is tested under each condition o Within- subjects design Test the same group of subjects under each condition Pure research o Is motivated primarily by the curiosity of the researcher -- it is done solely for the purpose of acquiring knowledge 2 Applied Research o Is intended to bring about some direct benefit to humankind Physiological Psychology o Studies the neural mechanisms of behavior through the direct manipulation and recording of the brain in controlled experiments-- surgical and electrical methods are most common Psychopharmacology o Manipulation of neural activity and behavior with drugs Neuropsychology o Study of the psychological effects of brain damage in human patients Psychophysiology o Studies the relation between physiological activity and psychological processes in human subjects Cognitive Neuroscience 3 o Study the neural bases of cognition, a term that generally refers to higher intellectual processes such as thought, memory, attention, and complex perceptual processes Comparative Psychology o Compare the behavior of different species in order to understand the evolution, genetics, and adaptiveness of behavior o Others engage in Ethological Research Study of animal behavior in its natural environment Egas Moniz and the prefrontal lobotomy o Severs connections between the prefrontal cortex and rest of the brain o Operation was tried because of observations suggesting the prefrontal cortex damage reduces emotionality in a single chimpanzee, Becky o Problems Side effects: Apathy, impulsiveness, loss of social inhibitions, *inability to make/carry out plans, amorality, incontinence 4 No formal evaluation of outcomes, assessment was usually based on doctor's opinion . 5
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