Week One and Two Notes Outline
Week One and Two Notes Outline CRM 1003
Popular in Crime and Justice in America
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katy Davit on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRM 1003 at Mississippi State University taught by Sarah Rogers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Crime and Justice in America in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Crime & Justice in America WEEK ONE AND TWO NOT ES OUTLINE ! Chapter 1: Crime and Criminology Criminology- the scientific approach to studying criminal behavior Areas of Interest- •! Crime as a social phenomenon •! Process of making laws •! The breaking of laws and its reaction •! Development of principles This chapter goes into a further explanation of the origins of crime, as well as, the extent and nature of crime in society Criminal Justice- The study of agencies of social control Such as: •! Police •! Courts •! Corrections Deviance- Behavior that departs from social norms, values, and beliefs but isn’t always a crime Crime- An act deemed as socially harmful or dangerous that is defined and prohibited by law !! There is a fine line between the two, and many people have different ideas of what deviance is Criminologists… What do they do? •! Devise accurate methods of collecting crime data •! Measure trends and amount of criminal activity •! Determine who commits a crime and where •! Measure social policy and social trends on crime rate changes •! Design crime prevention programs Sociology of Law: •! The role social forces play in shaping criminal law •! History of legal thought •! How social forces shape the definition and content of law •! The impact of legal change •! The relationship between law and society Crime & Justice in America WEEK ONE AND TWO NOT ES OUTLINE ! •! The effects of criminalization and legalization on behaviors Theory Construction and Testing: …A systematic set of interrelated statements or principles Criminal Behavior Systems and Crime Typologies: …Researching criminal types and patterns Victimology: •! Calculating costs •! Studying the role •! Services for victims •! Factors that increase the likelihood of becoming a victim The Three Views of Crime: Consensus View- law defines crime, consensus exists on what is right and wrong, and laws apply to all citizens equally Conflict View- Law is a tool of ruling class, politically define concept “real crimes” are not outlawed, and law is used to control lower class Interactionist View- Moral entrepreneurs define crime, have or gained social power definition of crime, is subjective and reflects contemporary values and morals, and criminal labels are life transforming events Defining Crime: •! A violation of societal roles of behavior as interpreted and expressed by criminal legal code created by people holding social and political power If violated… Sanctions by state authority, social stigma, and loss of status. Crime & Justice in America WEEK ONE AND TWO NOT ES OUTLINE ! History of Law: •! Code of Hammurabi “an eye for an eye” •! Mosaic code (moral teaching) was what inspired the United States legal system •! Common law o! Early English law, which were mostly judge made law o! Norman conquest of England Mala in Se- Inherently evil and depraved Mala Prohibitum- Defined by Parliament Substantive Criminal Law- Defines rights and duties, such as crimes and punishments in the criminal law and civil rights and responsibilities in civil law Procedural Criminal Law- The rules and laws regarding operation of criminal proceedings Civil Law- Two people Public Law- A person and a state Socialization- The lifelong process of inheriting and disseminating norms, customs, values and ideologies Crime & Justice in America WEEK ONE AND TWO NOT ES OUTLINE ! Chapter 2: Nature and Extent of Crime Sources of Crime Data: Primary… Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)- Are official data on crime in the United States, published by the Federal Bureau of Investigation •! Number of crimes reported to the police and arrests reported as raw numbers •! Crime rates per 100,000 people are computed •! Changes in rate of crime overtime are computed Is the UCR Valid? Reporting Practices- Less than ½ of violent crimes and ¼ of property crimes are reported Law Enforcement Practices- Some police departments report crimes loosely Methodological Issues- Hierarchy role (only counts the most serious crime reported), each act is listed as a single offense for some crimes but not others, differences between FBI definitions and some states. National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)- An incident-based reporting system for crimes known to the police. For each crime incident coming to the attention of law enforcement, a variety of data are collected about the incident •! 1982 •! Collects data on each crime •! Expansion of offense categories •! Detail on individual crime arrests •! Linkage between arrests and clearances •! Distinguish between attempted and completed crimes •! Linkages between offense, offender, victim, property, and arrestee variables Crime & Justice in America WEEK ONE AND TWO NOT ES OUTLINE ! National Crime Victimization Survey (NEVS)- A national survey of approximately 49,000 to 77,400 households twice a year in the United States, on the frequency of crime victimization, as well as characteristics and consequences of victimization •! 1970s •! Sample of households age 12 and up •! Rape, sexual assault, burglary, and theft •! Disadvantages- Over reporting, underreporting, under representation, homeless, transients, interviewer effects, limited geographic coverage Clearance Rates: •! More than 20% of all index crimes are cleared by arrest, half of violent crimes are cleared •! More violent crimes are cleared than property crimes •! Violent Crimes offer more physical evidence, more police motivation, more media recognition for serious crimes, most of the time the victim knows their offender Index/Part I Crimes: •! Criminal Homicide •! Forcible Rape •! Robbery •! Aggravated Assault •! Burglary •! Larceny Theft •! Motor Vehicle Theft •! Arson Part II Crimes (Some Examples): •! Drug Abuse •! Fraud •! Vandalism •! Simple Assault •! Possession Charges Crime & Justice in America WEEK ONE AND TWO NOT ES OUTLINE ! Dark Figure of Crime: •! Amount of crime committed that never comes to light •! UCR- Dark figure is mostly non-serious crime •! Victimization Survey- Dark figure is mostly non-serious crime •! Self-Report- Dark figure is mostly serious crime Secondary… Cohort Research- Observation of a group of people who share a like characteristic over time •! Data may be collected from a number of different sources •! Retrospective cohort study Experimental Research- Controlled experiments that collects data on the causes of crime •! Difficult and expensive Interview Research- The qualitative research interview seeks to describe and the meanings of. central themes in the life world of the subjects •! Smaller number of subjects •! In-depth interviews •! More detail Observational Research- a type of correlational research in which a researcher observes ongoing behavior •! Motives •! Activities Meta-Analysis- Meta-analysis is a statistical technique for combining the findings from independent studies •! Data from multiple previous studies Systematic Research- Using collective evidence to appraise a scientific question (reverse hypothesis) Crime Mapping- used by analysts in law enforcement agencies to map, visualize, and analyze crime incident patterns. •! Crime locations or concentrations •! Chart trends in criminal activity Crime & Justice in America WEEK ONE AND TWO NOT ES OUTLINE ! Crime Trends: High Crime in the 1960s- •! Civil rights movement •! Vietnam protests •! Increase in number of police •! Drug markets (psychopharmacological, violence in selling and buying drugs) •! Baby boomers in crime prone age 1990s Crime Drop- •! Economic boom •! Gun control •! Age structure (very argued factor) •! New drug law effects (war on drugs, coined by Nancy Reagan) •! Incarceration •! Policing •! Immigration (lower crime rates for any immigrant, legal or illegal) Delinquent- Term for a child (under 18) Criminal- Term for an adult (over 18)
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