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p 42-50 & class 1/22/16

by: Stephanie Robertson

p 42-50 & class 1/22/16 Psychology 110

Stephanie Robertson
GPA 3.6
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About this Document

Notes from pages 42-50 of the book plus a little extra to add to Chapter 1 from the class on 1/22/16.
Anastasia Kerr-German
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Robertson on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 110 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Anastasia Kerr-German in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
Additional information from Class 1/22/16  Feelings are heart centric. Language and logic are mind centric.  Mind – Body Dualism (René Descartes)- mind and body are two distinct things.  Hypnosis- Where a subject recalls memories, thoughts or feelings while in a trance. o First studied by Anton Mesmer in the 1700’s o Different than today’s hypnosis (used to involve drugs) o No longer trusted today by most because it can cause false memories.  Phrenology- Focused on measurements of the human skull. “Study of lumps on your head.” Larger or smaller areas on your skull may indicate your thinking or behavior. Important Dates in the History of Psychology:  1875- Father of American Psychology- William James (Harvard)  1879- First “formal” psychology lab in the world- William Wundt (Leipzig, Germany)  1889- APA Founded  1889- Sir Francis Galton- “Correlation”- relationship regarding variables  1900- Frued “Interpretation of Dreams” Founders of the Different Perspectives of Psychology:  Structuralism- E.B. Tichener  Functionalism- William James  Behavioralism- John B. Watson & B.F. Skinner  Cognitivism- Jean Piaget & Ulric Neisser  Psychoanalisis- Sigmund Frued Chapter 2: Research Methods Examples of the Importance of Good Research Design:  Facilitated Communication- (founder Douglas Biklen) A type of communication used for people with motor disorders who cannot speak. A facilitator holds the subject’s hand gently and allows the subject to type or otherwise express their thoughts through the use of the facilitator’s hand. o November, 1991- Mark Storch rape case:  Multiple facilitated communicators typed out over 200 rape accusations involving his daughter Jenny.  Research study nearly 100% proved that words being typed were the facilitator’s thoughts, not the subject’s.  Ideomotor Effect- When ideas influence movement without the subject’s direct knowledge. Prefrontal Lobotomy- Where neural fibers connecting the brain’s frontal lobes are severed. o Was believed to be a successful treatment for schizophrenia for decades. o Egas Moniz received the Nobel Prize in 1949 for developing this technique. o Was later found to not effectively treat schizophrenia but to cause other serious problems masking it.  Like facilitated communication, naïve realism and confirmation bias clouded the judgement of scientists who believed in this. Sometimes we oversimplify because we are cognitive misers. o Cognitive Miser- A “mentally lazy” being. One who uses heuristics.  Heuristics- Mental shortcuts that we use to make sense of our otherwise complex world. o Representative Heuristic- “Judging a book by its cover” or coming to a conclusion based on the very brief surface of information. 2  Example: You’re more likely to think a Hispanic student would be majoring in Latin American Studies than Chemistry.  Base Rate- The percentage indicating how common a trait or behavior is. Base Rate Fallacy- When the base rate is ignored in a scientific investigation. o Availability Heuristic- Estimating the probability of something based on how quickly and easily we thought of the answer.  Example: You’re likely to think UTK campus has more squirrels than downtown Knoxville because images of squirrels at UTK come into your head more readily. Cognitive Biases- Systematic errors in the way we think. o Confirmation Bias (Seen in Chapter 1) o Hindsight Bias- “I knew it all along.” Saying what we would have thought in a study is easy after we see the results. o Overconfidence- We usually have way too much confidence that our predictions are right.  Philip Tetlock (2005)- Found that the more confident an expert was in their political views, the more likely they were to predict outcomes wrong. Less confident experts were more likely to be correct. Probably because their thinking wasn’t clouded by their overconfidence so they could more easily see others’ points of view 3


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