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American Indian Medicine and Wellness 160A

by: Eilidh Notetaker

American Indian Medicine and Wellness 160A MAS 160A

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Education and Teacher Studies > MAS 160A > American Indian Medicine and Wellness 160A
Eilidh Notetaker
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week 2 lecture notes
American Indian Medicine and Wellness
Antonio Estrada
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eilidh Notetaker on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MAS 160A at University of Arizona taught by Antonio Estrada in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see American Indian Medicine and Wellness in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Arizona.

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Date Created: 01/24/16
January 20, 2016 American Indian / Alaskan Native Demographic Profile What is Race?  Medical Definitions of Race: o The term race implies a blood related group with characteristics and  common hereditary traits o Persons who are relatively homogeneous with respect to biological  inheritance (DNA is similar) o A phenotypically (how they look) and/or geographically (where they are)  distinctive sub­ specific group of individuals that live in the same region,  distinguished from other groups What is race defined by the census?  white: refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe,  the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicated their race(s) as  “white” or reported entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab,  Moroccan  black or African American: refers to any person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. Includes people who indicated their race(s) as “black,  African American, or negro”   asian: refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far  East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent  native hawaiian or other pacific islander: refers to a person having origins in any  of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.   american indian or alaskan native: refers to a person having origins in any of the  original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and  who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. Includes people who  reported their enrolled or principle tribe (i.e. Navajo, Blackfoot, etc.) o There have been changes to the composition of selected American Indian  tribal groupings used by the census Is race defined by scientific measures or does it only matter what you believe to  be true?  Ethnic/ Racial Identification  Race is a socially constructed term reflecting the social, political, and scientific  climate in any given time (race can change based on the times)  Ethnicity is a socially constructed term reflecting an individual or group's’ cultural  identity o includes language, religion, beliefs, practices, ancestry that people share Terminology:  Indian  American Indian  Native American  Indigenous (originating or occurring naturally in a particular place; native)  First Nations (Canada, North America, origins are in the Americas) Problems:  monolithic term­ homogenizes cultures  many tribes  loses specificity Racial/ Ethnic Identification  Five Places with the largest number of AI/AN (alone or combination) 1.     New York 2.     Los Angeles 3.     Phoenix 4.     Oklahoma City 5.     Anchorage 6.     Alberquerque is 7  and Tucson is 11 th Social Determinants of Health  SDOH are the conditions in the environments in which people are born,  live,learn, work, play worship, and age that affect a wide range of health,  functioning, and quality of life  What are social determinants o   Safe and affordable housing o   Access to education o   Public safety o   Availability of healthy foods o   Local emergency/ health services o   Quality of job training o   Social support/networks o   Social norms and attitudes (i.e. discrimination, racism, and distrust of  government) o Environments free of life threatening toxins o Availability of community­based resources in support of community living  and opportunities for recreational and leisure­time activities o   Exposure to crime, violence, and other things Healthy People 2020 developed a “place­based organized framework to help people  with their day to day life. These 5 key areas (determinants) include:    Economic Stability: o   Poverty o   Employment and underemployment o   Food security o   Housing security  Education o   High school grad or GED o   Enrollment in higher education o   Language and literacy o   Early childhood development  Social and community context o   Social cohesion o   Discrimination, racism, equity o   Incarceration  Health and Health Care o   Access to primary care o   Access to preventive care o   Health insurance coverage o   Health literacy  Neighborhood and Built Environment: o   Access to healthy foods o  Quality of housing o Rates of crime and violence o Environmental conditions American Indian/ Alaska Native Demographic Profile  566 Federally recognized tribes in the United States o The median age of AI/AN alone us 31 years compared to 37 years for the  US population as a whole o 22% of AI/AN lived in American Indian areas or Alaska Native Village  Statistical areas in 2010 o 27.6% of AI/AN alone lack health insurance coverage  Educational Attainment in 2011: o 78.9% of AI/AN age 25+ have a high school diploma or GED o 13.3% of AI/AN age 25+ have a bachelor’s degree o 65, 356 of AI/AN age 25+ have a graduate or professional degree  Income, Employment, and Poverty in 2011 o The median family income of AI/AN Natives was $35,192 o 26.2% of of AI/AN age 16+ worked in management, business, science,  and arts occupations o 29.5% of AI/AN Natives lived in poverty  Poverty Rates: o South Dakota has the highest poverty rate, with 43­47% of Native  American families falling below the poverty line o The next highest poverty rates were in: 1. Montana  2. Nebraska 3. Arizona 4. Minnesota  Reservation Poverty Rates: o Almost 1/3 of American Indians in the United States live on reservations,  totaling approximately 700,000 individuals o About half of all American Indians living on reservations are concentrated  on the ten largest reservations o In 2010, the poverty rate on reservations was 28.4%, compared with 22%  among all American Indians (on and off reservations) o However, family poverty varies widely, from a low of 22.6% (Wind River)  to a high of 58.5% (Fort Peck). o In addition to high poverty rates, many Indian reservations are hindered  by: ­Low education levels ­ Poor healthcare services ­ Substandard housing ­ A deficient economic structure  Nationally: o 71% of AI/AN reside in urban areas o More than 1 in 5 AI/ANs live in poverty Arizona American Indian Population Demographics  Arizona American Indian Population: o 22 sovereign American Indian communities currently inhabit Arizona,  representing a wealth of cultural diversity; o Total reservation land covers over a quarter of the state; o Arizona has the third largest American Indian population in the entire U.S.; o An estimated 5 ­ 6% of Arizona’s total population is of American Indian  ancestry. o Some tribes are descended from Arizona’s very first inhabitants  (“Anasazi;” “Hohokam”) o Others appeared just a few centuries before Spanish explorers came into  the area (Navajo)  Misclassification is a major issue in the identification of American Indian and  Alaska Native peoples. o Why is misclassification important? ­Could over or under estimate the total population; ­Policy driven decisions are, in part, based on demographics, i.e. the  number of people    who identify as AI/AN ­ Creates problems in reporting morbidity and mortality information. There are 3 reasons for misclassification of American Indian and Alaska Native peoples  Systems Level: o No electronic medical records available o Unable to link to other registries o No patient query/ lack of ethnicity field in data collection o Inadequate definitions of AI/AN identity  Policy Level:  o Spanish surnames – people automatically classified as Hispanic o Physical appearance of individual o Decreasing blood quantum o Younger and older people more likely to be classified as White on death  certificates.  Individual Level: o Refusal to answer race/ethnicity questions o Not able to identify with a particular ethnic or racial identity o Forced to identify as one race in forms o Previous generation did not enroll in tribe.  Who is Native American? o Does it depend on phenotype? o Does it depend on DNA or ancestry? o Does it depend on “how much?” o Does it depend on how one was raised? o Does it depend on where one was raised? o Does it depend on personal beliefs and customs?


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