Review Sheet for NATS 101 at UA
Review Sheet for NATS 101 at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Review Earth s Energy Budget Terminology Electromagnetic radiation V Energy in the form of waves called electromagnetic waves A1 A2 a a h1lt AZ or E1gtE2 where E is energy V Photons discrete packets of energy comprising an electromagnetic wave V Electromagnetic spectrum The distribution of electromagnetic radiation by energy or wavelength Spectrum includes UV visible and infrared IR wavelengths VlSlblG light Sun s electromagnetic spectrum Review Earth s Energy Budget Terminology Sun and Earth as blackbodies V Blackbody emits all radiation possible for its given temperature see Stefan Boltzmann s Law absorbs all radiation that hits it V Wavelength of electromagnetic radiation emitted primarily depends upon the objects temperature where the higher the temperature the shorter the wavelengths of emitted radiation Men s Law V Objects with a high temperature emit electromagnetic radiation at a greater rate than objects with a lower temperature Stefan Boltzmann s Law V Radiative Equilibrium Temperature the temperature the earth would have if it were absorbing solar and emitting IR radiation at equal rates Review Earth s Energy Budget Terminology Atmosphere as a selective absorber V Selective absorber objects that absorb and emit radiation at select wavelengths such as the gases in our atmosphere V Atmospheric greenhouse effect The absorption of IR radiation emitted from earth by atmospheric greenhouse gases C02 H20 CH4 etc and the emission of IR back to earth from the atmosphere V Atmospheric Window the region in the IR portion of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted from earth that is not absorbed by gases in our atmosphere Absorption Emission and the Atmosnheric Greenhouse Effect 0 Outgomg m energy 0 Outgomg m Energy ncommg ncammg surar e sorar mans Thumwn A amwcm N0 greenhouse gases Greenhouse gases present radiative equilibrium actual average temperature on temperature attained earth Effect of Clouds All wavelengths of 2 Sun s rays A V I If a firA E 1 39 Amy 39 r 9 7 a JI Q9 Earth s surface approximated cloud as a blackbody for long wavelengths such as the IR range of the spectrum and used the Stefan Boltzmann law to get intensity of emitted radiation Albedo ow much Inllr unargv II nllnela hick Into upncn Albedo 7 The fraction of solar radiation that is re ected off rather than absorbed by or transmitted through an object What happens to the Sun s energy 30 re ect scattered 339 SO1 OO ncommg and scattere so ar radwa on 100 units 4 VA l 70 absorbed by earthatmosphere Top of atmosphere 9 absorbed 9 absorbed by armospher and c ouds r end dw use 51 What about other 49 sorbed MEL DmnsThnmmn Emnklcnh Fig 213 141 Earth s Energy Budget Incoming and outgoing radiation together IR loss through From previous slide atmospheric WlndOW a Energy inst to space Latentsensible 46 Is ea mg E v s f K Ener gamed by wbere mam 111 solar J7 23 SRgnsorpg ns 05110 Space back to surface r gtV Latent lt IR lt64 7 K heat Eabsorpugr J 7 e Energy inst J 39t by atmosphere gonvesgzngnj a nfrared sensibe j g y t hardnesv m a ta lu M tk eengre Jr i 7 10339s H ZS 417 51 R39fmm 1m 95 iquot x m clouds 7 Energy ost Energy gamed atearth surface radiative cooling atearth surface Temperature Variations Daytime heatingNighttime cooling Changes of temperature With height temperature structure during the daynight Factors controlling observed temperature patterns near the earth s surface Daytime Warming Surface warms the air above it by conduction Thermometer Shelter Warm air above surface rises as thermals warming the air further up by convection ma warm air mass cold air P Z Altitude 4 j i Winds encourage mixing of Air temperature r 7 5 m air masses I a 55 c n n 7 This temperature pro le 35 4O 45 50 C 90 100 HQ 720 F Temperature near the surface is said to be unstablely strati ed or simply unstable amemmW Fig 31 p56 Nighttime Cooling Surface and air cools by losing more radiation than it is receiving 7 radiational R Tmmmmfg cooling The ground is a better i conductor lower heat capacity than air allowing it to cool more quickly radiation temperature inversion 7 cold air at surface with warm air above it Favorable conditions for a radiation temperature 1nvers1on Still air Long night Dry air with few clouds runwaywhom 35 Te P rame Fig 33 p57 Daily Variation in Temperature Datty temperature Max E Diurnal cycle dally g l a varlatlon 1n temperature 2 Mn 1 t t t t Dally diurnal range I tncommg sotarenergy dlfference between dally t 1 t maX1mum and dally I t l g t mlnlmum temperature g Outgomg 1 t E earth energyt I t LE1 t k t t t t t t t t 12 2 4 6 8 10 Noon 2 4 6 8 1012 Ttme Sum tse Sunset WWWWW Fig 32 p57 Valley Temperature Variations 500 1500 Temperature profile 400 elawfreezing moo EDD E 39 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 E E 200 g lt 500 Thermal belt Abovefveezing lt 100 Eelnw freezing U 45 40 4 u 5 mac l l l l l l l a in 20 an 40 50 F Ts39mEvatma Fig 34 p61 ems Thurman Ermuxcula Cold air blowing down the hillsides are called katabatic Winds Saving crops Too cold near surface Fig 35 p61 quot Fig 36 p61 Circulate air by heating Or mix warm air aloft With creating convective currents cool surface air using Wind machines Saving crops Or spray water over soil and crops Latent heat heat going into converting water to ice keeps temperatures from dropping below freezing ozonnhammnmmwcmn Fig 37 p62 Sea level air temperatures in January Latitude effects 7 3 i i i i 0 Temperatures highest at equator lowest at poles 0 Greater difference in incoming solar radiation between poles and equator during northern hemisphere Winter makes isotherms closer together than in northern an hemisphere summer compare with July slide ltgt Latitude isnth erms 90 180 90 U 90 Long mm a mg m 51mm Sea level air temperatures in January Ocean Land differences 7 9 HE 9 0 Ocean warmer than 7 39 land in winter i I i Q hemisphere W 20 4L 2quot 0 Ocean colder than m 2 land in summer 7 jg hemisphere 6g 0 warmest temperatures m Q n g 7 not at equator but in SH g 0 70 4 desert regions 6 Why 30 730 7 oceans absorb solar radiation over a deeper W ED layer than the land 33 40 7 oceans transport heat h 30 Via ocean currents at ems i i i 90 TBD 90 U 90 7 water has a higher heat Longitude a ms mmn 3mm capacity than landrock Sea level air temperatures in July 0 Temperature changes more an 8 90 U 90 gradual from equator to pole than during January 0 Seasonal differences at the equator are small compared to the poles lt5 C compared to 100 C for Siberia 0 Seasonal differences along midlatitude coastlines greater 30 H 7 7 for east coast of continents VA Boston than for west coast of continents Seattle This is because prevailing wind is from the west or off the 9 0 isotherms Lamude H30 90 0 EU ocean for the west coast Longwtude Seattle but off the land formmmm mw39 the east coast Boston Fig 39 p64 Record Highs I H n LE ume Record gh Temperatures Throughout the World Tucson RECORD HIGH 0 LOCATION TEMPERATURE Record H1 gh 117 F anqu1 1 01 VF 11mm ran DATE 47o on June 26y Lib S8 136 The world September 13 1922 1 990 Death Valley Calif 57 134 Nestem luly 10 1913 36 N Hemisphere Tim Tva Israel 54 129 Middle East llu1e 21 1942 W t 32am armes year Cloncurry 53 123 Australia ra11ua1y16 1319 71 401 220 in Q11 ensl111d21 5 39 Seville5p1riu 37 N 50 122 Europe August 4 1881 1 9 Rivadavia A1gemina 49 120 5011111 December 11 1905 35quot5 America Mldaley Saskatchewan 45 113 Camda luly 5 1937 49 N Warme st month Fm39tYukonY Alaska 38 101 Alaska hum 27 1915 O O 39 a 906 F 33 C 1n July lt66Ngt Pahala Hawaii 19quotN 38 100 Hawaii April 27 1931 Esparanzn Antarctica 14 58 Antarctica October 20 1956 53 51 ammmnmmm p58a omvsTanEmnk mh Death Valley CA high 57 C 134 F in July 1913 p58b Record Lows l llEB LOCATION LATITUDE Tucson Record Low 6 F 14 C on January 7 1913 Voslok Antarctica 78 51 Verlthnyn 1151 much 67quotN Northlce Greenland 72 N 51mg Yukon 62quotN Prospect Creek Alaska 66quotN Rogers Pass Montana 47 N Sarmlento Argentina 34 s Irruue Morocco 33quotN Charlotte Pass Amtralia 36 5 Mt Haleakala Hawaii 20 N Coldest year 650 F 18 C in 1912 and 1905 Coldest month 412 F 5 C in January 1937 9 mos mmn 4 gramme Some Record Low Temperature REGURD an TEM PERATURE 1 C 1 Fl 789 7129 76R 790 766 457 763 441 42 450 757 770 733 727 724 711 722 4 710 14 RECORD FOR The world Northern Hemisphere Greenland North America Alaska us exclude ing Alaska South America Africa Australia Hawaii out the World DATE lu1y21 1933 Fehmary 7 1392 laundry 9 1954 February 3 1947 laundry 231971 January 20 1954 lune 1 1907 Fehnmry 11 1935 luly 22 1949 laundry 2 1961 p60 Vostok Antartica world record low 89 C 129 F in July 1983 Annual Temperature Variation by Latitude N 00 O O l 0 Average Montth Temperature QC c39n 439 cl K L D D C C O I m o D 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec e Vostok quotpole of inaccessibilityquot B McMurdo edge of Ross Sea 9 New York east coast city London coastal city north of NY Sydney SH coastal city Apparent Temperature Apparent Temperature humidity adds to perceived heat Rolativehumldlty 400 102030405060705050100 50 I Sample Tem um 00 F and relative humidity o 60 pean appalenl lemperatuve is 13039 an quotIE edge of he ammaly hm39 range What the dull rs In In each range lppuunt tampertum Hnal mks imminent Heatslroka posslbls with volongad exposure as cramps and heal axhausllon Ilkelyl Hot Heat cramps and heal exhausuon posslbla with expaauva Vary warm Physical activity could be male auguing man usuaL TWB p 25 Wind Chill Wind Chill due to windenhanced convection of heat from skin W v How to and m u a K Draw a Ilns down tram the temperature on lap Draw another line across from wind speed on the left Where they mast is how cold it feels 2s as 44 33 Tw
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