Anatomy 1223 Week 2 Notes
Anatomy 1223 Week 2 Notes 1223
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Macione on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1223 at Temple University taught by Dr. Rooney in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Kinesiology at Temple University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Anna Macione Human Anatomy and Physiology 1223 Spring 2016- Lecture 2 Notes Dr. Rooney 1/14/16-1/21/16 II. Feedback Mechanisms - Help to characterize homeostatic regulations - Output info from a system (loop), then put back into system for instruction - Two different types o Positive o Negative A. Negative Feedback vs. Positive Feedback - Negative Feedback Loops: Abnormal deviations away from system’s set point initiate mechanism to return to normal standards o Simply, the response is made smaller in order to keep variations in stimulus closer to the set point o Example: Regulation of blood sugar in humans: blood sugar rises > insulin signals liver/ other muscles to store excess sugar - Positive Feedback Loops: self- amplifying response to a stimulus that continues until negative feedback mechanism acts upon it o Continued movement in same direction, leads to change in same direction o Produces quick changes o Example: Blood clotting: If a blood vessel is damages, platelets in blood attach to damaged area, signals are sent out to notify more platelets to help until blood clots. B. Fever - Abnormally high body temperature - Increased metabolic rate= greater heat production C. Stress - Any stimulus that creates a disturbance in homeostasis - External stresses: heat, cold - Internal stresses: pain (headaches), increased BP - Two types o Mild stressor: homeostatic mechanisms can handle it, able to return to normal Example: Test anxiety; prior to test (sweaty palms/ increased HR, “rock in stomach feeling”) o Severe stressor: Homeostatic mechanism have hard time coping; mediation needed immediately Example: Third degree burn; medical attention needed to salvage tissue/ prevent infections III. Anatomical Position - Person standing upright, feet flat/ forward on ground, arms at sides with palms facing forward - Universal concept to understand proper orientations of the body and its parts - Helpful reference for proper anatomical orientations A. Additional Terminology - Ipsilateral: “same side”; Right arm ipsilateral to right leg - Contralateral: “opposite side”; Right arm contralateral to left arm - Superficial: “close to surface”; Skin is superficial to muscle Anna Macione - Deep: “away from surface”; Bone is deep to skin - Cranial: “toward the head” - Caudal: “toward trunk” - Visceral: “inner” - Parietal: relating to wall of a body cavity - Appendicular: legs/ arms - Axial: skull/ vertebral column IV. Body Cavities & Membranes - Sections of body that contain organs A. Ventral Cavity o Thoracic cavity (heart & lungs) B. Abdominopelvic Cavity o Abdominal Cavity (Stomach/ Liver/ Spleen/ Gallbladder/ Sm. & Lrg. Intestines) o Diaphragm lies b/w cavities o Pelvic Cavity (End of Lrg. Intestine/ Bladder/ Reproductive systems) C. Body Planes - Three directional planes; define body movements; orientation of body o (1) Sagittal: Right/ left sides o (2) Frontal: aka “Coronal”; Front/ back or anterior/ posterior o (3) Transverse: Upper/ lower V. Chemistry of Life A. Chemical Elements - Elements composed of atoms o Atom: simplest unit of matter w/ element properties; electrically neutral o Molecule: most simple form of a particle - Essential Elements to Body (24-26 in total) o Oxygen (O) 65%; Carbon (C) 18.5%; Hydrogen (H) 9.5%; Nitrogen (N) 3.2 %; Total Percentage 96.2% o Other elements: Calcium (Ca) 1.5%; Phosphorus (P) 1.0%; Potassium (K) 0.4%; Total Percentage 2.9% o Trace elements: elements in body in miniscule quantities; ~0.9% B. Structure of Atoms - Modern interpretations of atom based off Bohr’s model o Nucleus in center Protons: (+) charge Neutrons: neutral charge o Electrons: (-) charge; make up shell around nucleus of atom o Valence electrons: create outermost electron shell Allow interactions b/w other atoms & chemical behavior C. Ions & Ionization - Ion: atoms w/ (+) or (-) charge; unequal number of protons and electrons - Ionization: sharing of electrons b/w atoms; create greater strength of shell D. Anions & Cations - Anion: atoms that GAIN electrons; (-) charge - Cation: atoms that LOSE electron (+) charge o Opposite charges attract! VI. Chemical Reactions - Creation and destruction of bonds b/w atoms - Determined by chemical bond forming or breaking - Collision b/w atoms necessary; must be large enough to avoid resistance b/w electrons - Two different types Anna Macione o Anabolism: “synthesizing” reaction; using energy & many small molecules to make bigger ones Example: Photosynthesis; CO2 & H2O synthesized to create glucose and O2 o Catabolism: “decomposition” reactions; breaking down big molecules into small ones; energy given off as result Example: (In cells) decomposing hydrogen peroxide into H2O and O2 - Displacement Reactions: combo of catabolic and anabolic reactions o 2 diff molecules/atoms switch places o Catabolism happens first, anabolism second A. Oxidation- Reduction Reactions - Oxidation: molecule gives off energy/ loses electrons; energy level decreases o “Electron donor” or “reducing agent” o Commonly seen as hydrogen atoms - Reduction: adding electrons/ energy to molecule o “electron acceptor” or “oxidizing agent” o Example: rusting - Oxidation- Reduction in Cells o Comes in pairs; one oxidized/ other reduced - Oxidation of Glucose o C6H12 6 + 6O 2 > 6CO 2 + 6H O 2 ATP Glucose oxidized (donates electrons) ; turns into CO2 Oxygen reduced (gains electrons); forms H2O End result= energy produced (ATP) B. Reversible Reactions - Outcome of reaction has ability to return to original molecules - Example: CO 2 + H 2 <-> H CO2<->3HCO - 3 + H + o Carbon dioxide + Water; Carbonic Acid; Bicarbonate ion+ Hydrogen ion o Law of Mass Action: direction of reaction determined by amount of substance in reaction C. Metabolism - Sum of all chemical reactions in body - Catabolism: “exergonic” (energy releasing); breaking of covalent bonds - Anabolism: “endergonic” ( energy storing); needs input energy D. Factors Influencing Reaction Rates - Determines ALL chemical reactions in motion/ collision o Size: smaller > faster > more collision o Temperature: higher temp= faster collisions o Concentration: higher abundance of molecules= greater probability of colliding o Catalysts: increase reaction w/o being used; enzymes VII. Chemical Bonds - Ionic, Covalent, Hydrogen A. Ionic Bonds - Opposite charged ions attract - NO SHARING OF ELECTRONS - Weak (easy breaking in H2O) o Example: NaCl dissociates to Sodium & Chloride in H2O B. Covalent Bonds - Sharing of valence electrons - Very strong - Four (4) types o Single: sharing 1 pair Anna Macione o Double: sharing 2 pairs o Nonpolar: two atoms share 1 pair of electrons; strongest o Polar: pair of electrons unequally shared C. Hydrogen Bonds - Extremely weak w/ no sharing of electrons; between polar molecules o Example: Seen in water molecules; positive (+) Hydrogen & negative (-) Oxygen - Very important o Effect shape of proteins/ other large complex molecules (folding of bonds) o Highly sensitive to change in temp/ pH D. Energy - Capacity to do work; able to convert to other forms o Electrical: flow of electrons/ ions o Chemical: potential energy held in molecular bonds Example: production of ATP o Electrochemical: combo of electrical & chemical; foundation for nervous and muscular function Example: (1) electro= nerve cell signaling; (2) chemical= hormone secretion o Mechanical: motion of body parts o Heat: (kinetic) energy given off during molecular movement; byproduct of many reactions Temperature: measurement of heat Helpful in upkeep of homeostasis VIII. Chemical Compounds & Life Processes - Majority of chemicals in body are compounds - Two types o Organic: carbon containing o Inorganic: no carbon A. Molecules of Life - Inorganic: Water, minerals, gases - Organic: Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids/ nucleotides B. Inorganic Compounds - No carbon o Exceptions: carbon monoxide, CO2 - generally small - commonly seen w/ ionic bonds (NOT H2O) - Most important: water, acids, bases, salts 1. Water o Crucial to cells and extracellular fluids o Life depends on water; large portion of human & cell volume o Functions: Universal solvent: substance in which other material (solute) dissolves; forms solution; polarity helps with dissolving Hydrophilic substances: “water loving”; dissolve in water; salt Hydrophobic substances: “water fearing”; do not dissolve in water; oils Transport: ability to carry dissolved materials (macromolecules) Lubricant: reduced friction (joints, body cavities) Adhesion: two substances cohere to another Anna Macione Cohesion: one substance clings to self; hydrogen bonds; surface tension Shock absorption Cushioning for vital body parts Chemical reactant Hydrolysis: add water to catabolic reaction Dehydration: remove water during reaction Absorb/ release heat Ability to freeze and boil Thermal stability Increase temp in body if too cold; released as sweat if too hot
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