Class 4 Notes
Class 4 Notes Russ 280
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Russ 280 1/21/2016 Class 4 Moscow and Muscovy The Mongol Yoke The Time of Troubles The Romanovs Pushkin, Boris Godunov Rise of Moscow Rurik was the king Mongols take over- called the Mongol Yoke o Mongols dominate 1100s-1380 Before Mongols come in, Russia was very much a part of Europe o cut off from Europe after Mongol Yoke Moscow princes defeat Mongols o Moscow takes shape in 1100s: small city with big wall o Kremlin= fortress Red Square is outside Kremlin, one side backs up to Kremlin wall Moscow Kremlin, St. Basil’s Cathedral Early Moscow Moscow first mentioned in Primary Chronicle Prince Yuri Dolgoruky lays foundations for its walls Princes move from Novgorod to Moscow They start amassing territory, Moscow grows and grows Ivan Kalita (Moneybags) Great money manager: keeps Mongols happy with tribute but keeps some money for Russians Ransoms Russian prisoners, settles them in yet more territory Convinces head of Russian church to abandon Kiev for Moscow (1326) Moscow becomes spiritual center of Russia, the “Third Rome” (1453) 1453- Fall of Constantinople o Big in Orthodox faith because Constantinople was the seat of the Orthodox faith o Non Christians taking it over was not acceptable to the Orthodox people o This is why Moscow wishes to be the “Third Rome” Dmitrii Donskoy Wins crucial battle between Russians and Mongols in 1380 at the Battle of Kulikovo Liberating battle, marks end of Mongol Yoke – though they’re not truly gone until Ivan III Ivan IV, Ivan Groznyi (the Terrible), 1533-1584 Crowned czar at age 16, marries Anastasia Romanova She dies He abandons throne, is begged to return (common theme in Russian history) His conditions: secret police (Oprichnina), tsar’s right to punish as he wished 6 subsequent wives Gets angry with son and kills him (killed his heir) Poisoned? (Soviet autopsy showed he might have been poisoned) Time of Troubles (follows Ivan IV’s death) 1598: Boris Godunov seizes throne after Ivan’s death Body of Ivan’s youngest son, Dmitrii, found in 1591 o Many believe that Godunov had him killed 1601: Grigorii Otrepev poses as Dmitrii and people rally behind him o 1605: “False Dmitrii” was made czar using the Poles o 1606: he was murdered, and chaos ensues o When he dies, they burn his body and shoot his ashes out of a cannon towards Poland People are fighting because so many false Dmitriis are popping up Subject of Pushkin’s play, Boris Godunov *****Beginning of the Romanov Dynasty (1613-1917)**** Alexander Pushkin, Boris Godunov Pushkin: 1799-1837 Greatest Russian poet, “father of Russian literature” Writes Boris Godunov 1825, published 1831, performed 1866 Mussorgsky’s 1874 opera based on the play Discussion Questions on Boris Godunov 1. What makes an authentic ruler? What kind of a ruler is Boris? Why are people drawn to the False Dmitrii? Russians believe in a strong and intimidating ruler. Boris starts out as a good leader, but then when the “False Dmitrii” appears, people start to question Godunov’s rule and he begins to rule Russia in a very cruel way 2. How would you characterize Boris Godunov in Pushkin’s play? Is he guilty of the murder? Innocent? According to Pushkin, Boris Godunov is guilty of murder and is tormented by this more and more as he gets older. Boris is portrayed in a very negative light. 3. What is the difference between writing fiction and writing history? Pushkin was writing a play, which is fiction, but it was based on historical fact. Most of the facts are true, but he adds his own opinion on the history. Though it is unknown whether or not Godunov murdered Dmitrii, Pushkin makes the audience believe that Godunov did in fact kill Dmitrii. Pushkin goes as far as to put his own family members into the play. 4. Pushkin had a complicated relationship with the Russian monarchy; in 1826 Czar Nicholas I announced he’d be Pushkin’s personal censor. The first version of Boris Godunov was censored and edited severely, presumably by the czar himself, with a newly written version appearing in 1831. What issues might the czar have been looking for as he read Pushkin’s work?