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Biology 102

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by: Alyssa Shriver

Biology 102 Bio 102

Alyssa Shriver
GPA 2.7

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About this Document

These notes are for the first exam
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Jeremy Chandler
Class Notes
25 ?




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"Yes YES!! Thank you for these. I'm such a bad notetaker :/ will definitely be looking forward to these"
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Shriver on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Jeremy Chandler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
1/14/16 Biology Introduction  Biology­ the study of life  Life’s hierarchy of organization define the scope of biology o Life emerges through organization of various levels o With addition of each new level, novel properties emerge­ called emergent properties  7 properties of life o Order o Regulation o Growth and development o Energy processing o Response to the environment o Reproduction o Evolution  Levels of hierarchy o Biologists explore life at levels ranging from the biosphere to the  molecules that make up cells   The Upper Tier o Is a global perspective of life  Biosphere­ all the environments on Earth that support life  Ecosystem­ all the organisms living in a particular area  Community­ the array of organisms living in a particular ecosystem  Population­ all the individuals of a species within a specific area   The Middle Tier o The middle tier is characterized by the organism, an individual living thing,  which is composed of  Organ systems­ have specific functions; are composed of organs  Organs­ provide specific functions for the organism  Tissues­ made of groups of similar cells  The Lower Tier o Life emerges at the level of the cell, the lower tier, which is composed of  Molecules­ clusters of atoms  Organelles­ membrane­bound structures with specific functions  Cells­ living entities distinguished from their environment by a  membrane  What is Science? o A way of knowing based on inquiry o Systematic study of the natural world and natural phenomena o Science developed from our curiosity about ourselves and the world  around us o The word science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “to know”  How do scientists draw conclusions? o Reports in the news;  Coffee causes cancer  Coffee prevents some diseases  Caffeine can be poisonous o Use best evidence available o Ask: Was the science performed properly? o Conclusion may be modified in the future o Science is a never­ending process  Science is a process: make an observation o Start with an interesting informal observation o Often unreliable untested o Anecdotal evidence  Science is a process: formulate a question o Use observation to devise a question  Science is a process: studying previous research o Read relevant literature o See current information on the subject of interest o Study peer­reviewed scientific literature  Validity in science o Hypothesis driven science­ scientific method and logic are applied to  support or refute a hypothesis  A hypothesis is a tentative explanation made on the basis of  evidence collected  The strength of hypothesis driven science relies on the empirical  nature of its investigation  A hypothesis can never be “proven” only supported  Science is a process: studying previous research o Peer review: review of an article by experts before publication o Ensures that the authors have appropriately designed and interpreted their study  o Weeds out sloppy research  Culture of Science o Scientists build on what has been learned from earlier research  They pay close attention to contemporary scientists working on the  same problem o Cooperation and competition characterize the scientific culture  Scientists check the conclusions of others by attempting to repeat  experiments  Scientists are generally skeptics o Science has two key features that distinguish it from other forms of inquiry. Science..  Depends on observations and measurements that others can verify and  Requires that ideas (hypotheses) are testable by experiments that  others can repeat  Two approaches to Science o Discovery science­ describe natural phenomena based on observations.  Patterns and correlations lead to formation of a hypothesis o Hypothesis driven science­ scientific method and logic are applied to  support or refute a hypothesis   Example of discovery science o In 1929, Alexander Fleming discovered that Penicillium mold generated a  substance that kills bacteria  o In 1941, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain purified penicillin  The first commercial antibiotic to save human lives  Example of Hypothesis driven science o Criteria for establishing a causative link between an infectious agent and a disease  Dr. Barry Marshall o Drank to fulfill Koch’s postulate that it was causative organism of some  stomach lesions and ulcers   Science is a process: forming scientific hypotheses o A hypothesis is never proven  o If false, it is rejected and no longer considered a possible answer to the  original question o If the data support the hypothesis, it will be accepted until further testing  and data show otherwise  Science is a process: experimentation o Experimental group: experiences the experimental intervention or  manipulation o Control group: experiences no experimental intervention of manipulation  Basis for comparison   Science is a process: drawing conclusions o Sample size (n) is important o It is the number of experimental subjects of the number of times an  experiments are repeated  o The larger the sample size, the more likely the results will have statistical  significance o Statistical significance is a measure of confidence that the results obtained are “real” rather than due to random chance Lecture 1/19/16 Selection and Adaptation  Methicillin­resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) o Infectious bacterium o Difficult to treat with antibiotics o Kills 19,000 people in the United States each year   Staphylococcus aureus o S.aureus (also known as “staph) o Some strains are harmless, other cause disease o Drug­resistant strains exist  Methicillin­resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) o Developed resistance to antibiotic drugs o Adversely affects people with weakened immune system o Rocky Lannetti was already weakened by the flu   Healthy 21­year­old football player o The young, whose immune systems are still developing, and the elderly  are at especially high risk o People who are already sick and fighting off other infections can be at high risk too  Antiobiotics o Chemicals that either kill bacteria or slow their growth  o Interfere with function of essential bacterial cell structures  Bacteria reproduce through a process called binary fission.  Binary fission is a form of asexual reproduction in which a single parent cell  replicates its contents and then divides into two daughter cells.  o Each daughter cell inherits all its DNA from the single parent cell  Antibiotic resistance  o Bacteria emerge that survive antibiotics   o Acquire random mutations when DNA replicates during asexual  reproduction o Binary fission: one parental cell into two daughter cells  o Acquisition of new alleles in bacteria may result in antibiotic resistance   Random mutation  Gene transfer   Asexually reproducing bacterial populations become genetically diverse by  accumulating mutations and by picking up genes from organisms of the same or  different species  Mutation o Mutations made during DNA replication introduce new alleles into the  populations  Gene transfer o DNA can pass from one bacterial species to another. A non­staph  bacterium, for example, can pass genes to staph and introduce genes into the staph population that confer new traits, such as antibiotic resistance  How populations evolve o A population is a group of organisms of the same species living together  in the same geographic area o An entire population can change (evolve) when some traits are favored  over others o For example, a drug­resistant trait  o Genetically diverse population o Varying allele frequency o Environment favors some alleles over others o Allele frequency changes over time (called evolution) o Fitness: organisms ability to survive and reproduce in a particular  environment o Higher fitness= increased likelihood of alleles being passed to next  generation o Genes that confer resistance to antibiotics increase an organism’s fitness o Organism’s alleles, or genotype, determine phenotype o Interplay between phenotype and environment determine frequency of  traits in a population o If traits improve fitness, traits become more common in population  Phenotype o From Greek phainein, meaning “to show”, and typos, meaning “type” o An organism’s observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phenology,  behavior, and products of behavior  Genotype o An individual’s collection of genes or alleles (variant form of a gene)  inherited from a set of parental genes  How populations evolve o Organism’s alleles, or genotype, determine phenotype o Interplay between phenotype and environment determine frequency of  traits in a population   o If traits improve fitness, traits become more common in population o Population evolves o These processes all occur as a result of selection  o Populations, not individuals, evolve o Populations experience changes in allele frequencies over time   Mechanism of Evolution  o Selection   Artificial selection­ selective breeding for desired traits in an  organism  Natural selection­ process where organisms better adapted to their  environment produce more offspring and   In artificial selection humans are in effect the “environment” that  selects   In 1929, Alexander Fleming discovered that Penicillium mold generated a  substance that kills bacteria  In 1941, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain purified penicillin o The first commercial antibiotic to save human lives   Natural selection: differential survival and reproduction of individuals within a  population in response to environmental pressure   Advantageous traits become more common and population becomes better  suited, or adapted, to environment   Natural selection occurs in patterns o Directional selection: predominant phenotype shifts in a particular  direction   o Stabilizing selection: phenotype of populations settles near middle of  range  Ex. Human babies with very low birth weights do not survive as well as larger babies, and very large human babies are not easily  delivered through the birth canal. Midrange babies are favored o Diversify selection: phenotype of population is at both extremes of range  Three General Outcomes of Natural Selection o Directional selection: shifts the overall makeup of a population by  selecting in favor of one extreme phenotype o Stabilizing selection: favors intermediate phenotypes, occurs in relatively stable environments, and is the most common o Diversifying selection: can lead to a balance between two or more  contrasting phenotypic forms in a population  Evolution of the unseen microbial world o Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a growing problem that threatens  everyone’s way of life   Why sudden rise in antibiotic resistance? o Several factors have contributed  Availability and use  Profitability $$$  Evolution!  Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem worldwide o Antibiotics are overused o Overprescribed; used in farm animal feed  This exerts selective pressure for drug­resistant strains o Streptococcus pneumonia  o Acinetobacter baumanii  Resistant to multiple drugs   Stopping superbugs o Control resistance by changing practices that enable resistant strains to  thrive o Wash hands, use hand sanitizers, stop misuse of antibiotics 


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