BIOL 1030, Week 1 Notes
BIOL 1030, Week 1 Notes BIOL 1030
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Boutwell on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 at Auburn University taught by Debbie Folkerts in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
I. “Prokaryotic” characteristics/vocab A. Diversity: variation among species i. There is a greater degree of unnamed groups than in Eukaryotes (most not even discovered yet) ii. 2 Domains iii. 2+ Kingdoms B. Unicellular and small (microscopic) i. Most 1-5 micrometers. C. Shapes i. Coccus (-i): spherical shape (round like a cookie) ii. Bacillus (-i): hot dog weenie shaped iii. Spirillus (-i): slithering snake shaped D. Coloniality: the shapes aggregate into groups i. Solitary: unattached to other cells ii. Colonial: groups of single-celled organisms 1. Strepto-a chain like colony 2. Staphylo- clusters not chains E. Cell Wall: different from eukaryotes; variable i. Gram Stain: Very important test in determining a type of bacteria. Some have membranes around their cell walls which do not allow the peptidoglycantotakeupthestain.ThesearereferredtoasGramNegative. Those without the membranes take up the purple stain and are called Gram Positive. F. Capsule: surrounds bacillus G. Fimbria (-ae): few hair like substances extending from the capsule. H. Pilus (-i): more tube-like structures extending from cell. i. Sex Pilus: exchanges DNA with other cells. I. Motility: (structures used for movement) i. Flagellum (-a): long thread-like structures 1. Different from Eukaryotic Flagellum 2. Move toward food and away from danger. 3. Taxis: orientated movement (+ is toward; - is away from) a. Photo taxis: light b. Chemotaxis: food ii. Gliding J. Genome: all of the DNA molecules that make up an organism i. Nucleoid: a central area in bacteria where DNA can be found. 1. Ring shaped DNA: endless DNA ii. Plasmids: smaller pieces of circular DNA; can be picked up/transferred K. Reproduction: does not involve a change in chromosome number. i. Asexual: 1 cell forms 2 cells identical to the original (mitosis) 1. Binary fission: the name for mitosis in bacteria 2. Budding: a cell produces a smaller cell off to the side. 3. Cloning: no built in mechanism for genetic change 4. Conjugation: cells come together and exchange plasmids; closest thing to sex ii. Transformation: bacteria pick up extra plasmids which can become expressed or added to nucleoid 1. May or may not change by result iii. Transduction: transfer of material using a phage. 1. Viral 2. Cross-species L. Endospores: bacteria produces spores inside the cell. The spores are thick and resistant to allow survival in extreme conditions. i. Dispersal: the way nonmobile creatures transport ii. Resistance: allow them to be dormant until the right conditions arise. iii. Dormancy: not using their metabolism until the right conditions arise. M. Nutritional Modes: i. Heterotrophs: do not make their own food 1. Free-living: without the help of other organisms; typically feed on dead materials; decomposers. 2. Symbiotic: live with other organisms a. Mutualistic: both organisms benefit from it. b. Pathogenic: feeds on live organisms; carry diseases. ii. Autotrophs: create their own energy/food 1. Photoautotrophs: use light as energy source to create energy 2. Chemoautotrophs: cannot access light (such as bacteria in deep deep oceans) and use chemicals to create organic molecules 3. Photoheterotrophs: use light but their carbonsourcedoes not come from the atmosphere but another energy source. N. Oxygen Relationships: i. Aerobic: use oxygen in Cellular Respiration ii. Anaerobic: live without oxygen efficiently 1. Strict aerobes/anaerobes: need oxygen or are fatal to oxygen 2. Facultative: can live with or without oxygen. O. Ecological Relationships: i. Mutualists: live with other organisms in a beneficial way ii. Pathogens: feed on living organisms in a harmful way iii. Decomposers: feed on dead organisms iv. Biofilms: variety of mutual complementary environments on the surface of water/objects under water. II. Domain Archaea A. Kingdom archaebacterial (1-4 Kingdoms) B. Extremophiles: live under extreme conditions; places no other organisms can survive in. i. Thermophiles: hot/cold temps; typically found in hot springs. ii. Halophiles: salt lovers; survive in extremely salty conditions 1. Ex: Great Salt lake C. Methanogens: make methane (swamp gas, natural gas, fossil fuels) D. Non-extreme archaea: live in normal places; put in archaea because of a common ancestor. III. Domain Bacteria A. 1 to many kingdoms (Kingdom Eubacteria) B. Cyanobacteria: blue-green (algae) bacteria ((Algae are actually eukaryotes)) i. Photosynthetic ii. N-Fixation (N ->NO ) (Turning nitrogen gas in the air into something 2 3 absorbable by plants) iii. Similarity to chloroplasts 1. Serial endosymbiosis: hypothesis about the origin of Eukaryotic organisms: Basically states a Eukaryote ate some bacteria and the mitochondria and chloroplasts survived and created plants and animals as we know them today. C. Proteobacteria i. E. coli: Gram Negative; lives in colons; is actually good for you but is a warning sign that other pathogenic bacteria can be in rivers as well if found. ii. Purple-green bacteria-similar to mitochondria; N-Fixing bacteria D. Spirochetes: spirillum shape i. Many diseases; Gram positive E. Chlamydias: i. Can or cannot cause diseases; Gram positive F. Mycoplasmas i. Smallest of all bacteria; no cell wall ii. Free-living, pathogens iii. Genetically gram positive but lack a cell wall which makes them gram negative.
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