Class Note for ECOL 485 at UA
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PRIMATES ORDER PRIMATES Primates are one of the oldest orders of mammals dating back as far as the Late Cretaceous They are closely linked to insectivores Members of the insectitore family Tupaiidae p 73 although not ancestral to primates share morphological features with both orders The modern families of primates are characterized by features illustraling several evolutionary trends 1 a progressive elaboration of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain 2 regression in importance of oliaction and enhancement of visual acuity and 3 improvements in mobility and dexterity of limbs and digits According to Cartmill 1972 1974 the origin and persistence of these arboreal adaptations resulted from visually directed predation on arboreal insects by ancestral nocturnal primates Interesting ly virtually the entire range of chrom osome numbers in mammals is found among primates 2n 2080 Most primates are arboreal although some eign baboons chimpanzees humans are secondarily terrestrial Most are opportunistic feeders With iew exceptions they have comparatively generalized teeth Primates are most successful tropical and subtropical areas There are ten extant families only one of which is particularly diverse com posing two suborders Prosimii and Anthropoidea The anthropoids often are subdivided into two groups Platyrrhini and Catarrhini the former consisting of marmosets and New World monkeys and the latter comprising Old World monkeys apes and man Partly because of anthropocenlrism in 112 primates have long been considered an important group of mammals and have provided a rich area for research More has been written about them than about any other group ol mammals Recognition Characters 1 foot posture plantigrade 2 soles ol leet naked with enlarged pads 3 nail almost always present on hallux usually also on other digits 4 pollex andor hallux opposable used in grasping 5 braincase relatively large hous ing welldeveloped cerebral hemi spheres 6 radius and ulna tibia and fibula sep arate 7i clavicle well developed a orbit large and separated from tem poral 0552 by a postorbital bar or plate 9 molars trilubercular or quadrituber cular Compare with Insectivora Dermoptera Remarks The literature dealing with primates is enormous and widely scattered A general review of primate biology was provided by Fiedler 1956 Hill mm and Schultz 1959 Clark 1971 reviewed structure and evolution Taxonomy and comparative anatomy were thoroughly explored in the multi volume works ol Hill 1953 1955 1957 1960 1962 1965 1970 1974 and Elliott 1913 and in Napier and Napier 19m Selected sources lor other aspects of primate biology are locomotion Jenkins 1974 behavior Crook 1970 Devore PRIMATES 1955 Jay 1968 lolly 19721 ieeding ecology CIuttonBrocki1977 myths and relation to mart Morris and Morris 1966i conservation and use b man HASH x Prince Rainier III at Monan and Bourne 1977 Bermant and Lindburg 1975i The 1 il l 2 rl journals Primates and Folia Primalologica are devoted to studies oi hls order oi A mammals Figure 49 Anterior VIEWS oi the snout oi prosirriian w and anlhropoid iai primates showing divided at arrow and undwrded upper lips respectively Aller Hersnirovitz 1975 KEY TO FAMILIES OF PRIMATES 1a Upper lip divided Fig 49A postorbital bar complete but orbit and temporal fossa largely continuous deep to it lacrlmal ioramen opening outside orbit Prosi 1b Upper lip no divided Fig 493 orbit and temporal fossa separated by a bony plate lacrimal foranien opening inside orbit Anthropoidea 2a 1a Third digit on forefoot much longer than other digits incisors 11 chisel shaped premolars 10 s DAUBENTONIIDAE ip 117 2b Third digit on ioreioot not markedly longer than other digits incisors more than 11 not chisel shaped premolars 22 or 33 r r r 3 3a 2b Digits extremely elongate terminating in enlarged discs auditory bulla extending laterally as a bony tube no gap between upper incisors of opposite sides molars tritubercular r TARSIIDAE p120i 3b Digits only moderately elongale not terminating in en larged discs auditory bulla not extending laterally as a bony tube distinct gap between upper incisors ol opposite sides molars quadritubercular 4 4a labi Digits webbed all digits wiin nails upper incisors present enlarged and unequal in size lower pres molars 22 lirst one canineelike 30 or lewer total teeth r r r 4b Digits not webbed claw present on at least one digit of nindioot upper incisors absent or very small and equal in size lower premolars 33 none canine k more than 30 total teeth INDRlDAE p116 113 PRIMATES 5a 4b Second digit of forefoot short or absent snout and rostrum short braincase globular 5b Second digit of forefoot prominent snout an rostrum elongate braincase elongate r r r r LEMURIDAE pins LORISIDAE p115 Ga 1blr Nostrils well separated directed laterally auditory bulla not extending laterally as a bony tube Fig 50A Platyrrhini r r r r r r a 7 6b Nostrils close together directed forward or down ward auditory bulla extending laterally as a bony tube Fig SOB Calarrhini 7a 63 All digits with flattened or narrow keeled nails cheekteeth 66 r r r r CEBIDAE p122 7b Claws present on all digits except hallux which bears a nail cheekteeth 55 or 66 r r r r r 8 83 no Cheekreeth 55 a a a a r CALUTRICHIDAE p124 Bb Cheekteeth 66 a a a r a CALLIMICONIDAE 1123 9a Sblr Hallux not opposable no ischial callosities braincase enormous toothrows forming rounded arch canines relatively small scarcely longer than other teeth 4 4 a a r a r r a r HOMINIDAE p130 9b Hallux opposable ischial callosities usually present braintase moderately large toothrows i parallel canines well developed much longer than other teeth r r r r r r 10a 9b Tail usually present ischialcallosities welldeveloped no bony shell on posterior border of jaw symphysis r r r r r r r a r r CERCOPITHECIDAE p126 10b No tail hial callosities small or absent bony shell present on posterior border of jaw symphysis rrrrrrrrrr J ONGIDAE p123 A K m Figure 50 Absence a cebid A and presence 1 cercopithecid 5 ol a tubular extension at the bulla 114 PRIMATES SUBOFIDER PROSIMII 1 muzzle with rhinarium except Tare siidael 2 upper lip divided except Tarsii dae Fig 49A 3 orbit and temporal fossa largely con tinuous A lacrimal loramen opening out side orbit 5 braincase relatively small 6 foramen magnum t directed poster iorly Family LEMURIDAE Lemurs Lemurs may be easily distinguished from other proslmian primates by a combination of roughly equally pro portioned limbs a long wellhaired tail an elongate muzzle and separate digits The skull is also unusual the rostrum and cranium are elongate the upper incisors are minute or absent the lower canine is indistinct and the cheekteeth are tritubercular Figt silt These primitive primates inhabit wet or dry tropical forests They are herbivorous insectivorous or omnivorous Most are arborealand nocturnalbuttheringtailed emurLernurcattaisfrequently active on the ground during the day They are agile climbers Lemurs rest in rock crevices in hollow trees or in nests which they construct of leaves or grass Lemurs occur singly in pairs or in groups of up to 20 individuals They engage in mutual grooming and scent marking L catta has stinkfightsquot Jolly 1966 Social forms have sharply defined territories Lemurs emit a variety of shrieking and grunting sounds 115 Figure 51 Skull at a lcmur Lemur x vii Breeding normally occurs once a year Usually one or two young are born but multiple births also occur Lemurs are sometimes eaten by humans hawks also prey on them Five genera 15 species Madagascar Recognition Characters Ibraincase elongate globular in other prosimians lFig 51 1 size small to medium 2496 mi 2 limbs iequal in length 3 digils each bearing a nail except for second digit or hindluot which bears a claw 4 tall long turred 5 lurwoolly 6 rostrum elongate Fig 51 PRIMATES 7 orbits large usually with prominent ridge around each 8 upper incisors absent or uniform ly very small peglike and separated from incisors of oppo site side by a prominent gap lower incisors comblike procum bent Fig SH 9 molarstritubercular B111 Dental formula 2 1 3 3 32 35 Compare with Indridae Lorisidae Representative Genera Cheirogaleus 2 e Dwarl lemurs Lemur 5 Lemurs Lepilemur 1 L mustelinus is the sportive lemur Microcebus 2 Mouse lemurs Remarks Various aspects of the biology of lemurs were explored by Tattersall and Sussman 1975 Jolly 1966 examined the behavior of lemurs and Hill 1953 treated anatomy and taxonomy Family INDRIDAE silakas endrinas woolly lemurs These primates are recognizable externally by the relatively short hairless muzzle and long woolly or silky fur Because the hindlimbs are relied upon for most propulsion and grasping they are disproportionately large and the hindioot is large and elongate The well developed hallux opposes the other four toes which are webbed at their bases The total of 30 teeth in the dentition is unique among primates Indrids are strict herbivores Mor phological indications of this habit include along caecum and welldeveloped salivary glands They are the Madagascaran 116 equivalents of anthropoid lealrealers ol Alrica og Colobus Presbytis and South America eg Alouattal Indrids occur in tropical forests and brushy woodlands They are relatively sluggish deliberate climbers generally travelling on the ground or in an upright fashion in trees Movements are by leaps or hops They shelter in tree holes There is one breeding period per year at which time a single ollspring is born Indrids produce varied sounds Endrlnas Indri utter howls that are amplified by special laryngeal sacs Three general 4 species Madagascar Recognition Charaters bases of digits on hindioot except hallus united by skin 1 size medium 63460 cm 2 hindlimbs much longer than forel bs all dig with nails tail vestigial or long lurred fur solt often woolly rostrum relatively short orbits large with prominent ridge around each 8 upper incisors enlarged unequal in size separated lrom incisors ol opposite side by a small gap lower incisors comblike procumbent 9 molars quadritubercular 5 th Compare with Lemuridae Lorisidae Representative Genera Indrl l l indi is the endrina Propithecus lZl Silakas Remarks Hill 1953 reviewed taxonomy and anatomy of indrids Family DAUBENTONIIDAE Aveave Like lemurs p115l and indris p116 these curious prosimians are restricted to Madagascar They possess peculiar specializations that enable them to subsist on a diet of woodboring insects and their larvae The daniiiun is reduced and rodent like see below and Fig 52 The digits on the lorefeet are long and clawed The third finger is extremer elongate and wirelike and together with the incisor teeth it is used to probe and chip away bark and wood for insects The fur is coarse the tail bushy and the ears large Little is known of ayc aye habits They are secretive nocturnal animals of tropical Figure 52 Skull ola dnubnntoniid onubenionin x I Miter Elliori1913 117 PRIMATES forest occurring solitarin or in pairs They rest in nests or in hollow trees The only known vocalization is a sharp shriek One genus 2 species Madagascar Recognition Characters 0 third digit on forefoot slender longer than other digits 0 upper and lower incisors large chisel shaped Fig 52 1 size medium BE104 Cm 2 hindlimbs longer than forelimbs 3 digits each bearing a claw except for hallux which bears a flat nail 4 tail long bushy 5 pelage with shan woolly underiur and long coarse guard hairs 6 rostrum very short 7 orbils mediumsized withoul prominent orbital ridges lFig 52 8 incisors as described above a molars basically quadrilubercular with llat crowns and indistincl cusps Fig 52 r 10391 13 Dentallormula 1 0 03 18 20 Genus Daubenioni39a l1 D madagascariensis is is the aye aye Remarks The most authoritative account of ayeeaye biology is that ol Potter 1977 PRIMATES Family LORISIDAE Lorises patios galagos Although superficially resembling lemurs p115 these forestdwelling primates are distinguished by several external features of the limbs and snout see below The tail and ears vary in size The fur is soil thick and variable in color and sexes of some species eg lorises exhibit color dimorphism The eyes are prominent In galagos the hindlimbs are proportionately larger than those in other lorisids The skull is illustrated in Fig 53 Other peculiar adaptations are present The fingers are richly supplied with blood vessels this arrangement apparently results in improved gaseous exchange and reduced muscle fatigue during climbing Figure 53 Skull ol 3 luristtl Loris x it 118 activities In pottos lPCroticlus l the elongate spinous processes ol the cervical vertebrae are visible where they protrude through the skin of the dorsal surface or the neck The function of this curious condition is not known although it may serve as a protective device or as a secondary sexual characteristic Like cebid monkeys p122 lorisids practice urine washingquot of the hands Lorisids are nocturnal and arboreal Lorises and potros usually progress with slow deliberate motions In contrast galagos are prodigious leapers as in tarsiers their tarsal bones are lengthened Lorisids eatinsectsand othcrinverlebrates small vertebrates eggs resin and fruit They find shelter in tree holes forks ol branches foliage or abandoned nests Breedingapparently occurs twiceayear One to three young are produced Six genera 11 species southeast Asia India Ceylon East Indies and Africa south oi the Sahara Recognition Characters 1 size relatively small 18 80 cm 2 hindlimbs much longer than forelimbs 3 digits each bearing a nail except for second digit oi hindloot which bears a law 4 tail usually very small or absenl long in bushbahies S lur soir dense somewhat woolly 6 rostrum short 7 orbits large usually with prominent ridge around each Fig 53 8 upper incisors uniformly very small peglike and separated from incisors of opposite side by a prominent gap lower incisors usually comblike procumbent Fig 53 9 molars quadritubercular Fig 53 121 3 3 Dental formula 7 17 3 3 3436 Compare with Lemuridae lndridae Representative Genera Galago 4 Galagos bushbabies Loris 1 L ardigradus is the slender loris Nyclicebus 2p Slow Iorises Perodictus 1 P pane is the polto PRIMATES Remarks Some authors eg Kingdon 1971 Hershkovitz 1978 Vaughan 1978 relegated bushbabies to a separate 1amin 1GaIagidae A good source of information on ecology and behavior of Iorisids is Charles Dominique 1977 Anatomy and taxonomy were reviewed by Hill 1953 Slow loris PRIMATES Family TARSIIDAE Tarsiers Tarsiers have long confused tax onomists Structurally they combine characters of both suborders of primates prompting some authors 23 Hershkovitz 1978 to placethem in a group also including anthropoirl families Haplorrhini or others eg Romer1966 to erect a separate suborder for them Tarsiiiormes Despite taxonomic difficultiestarsiers are easily distinguished from other primates because of the squat body rounded head dominated by huge eyes and long naked tail Two clawed grooming digits on the hindioot and large mobile ears are also peculiar The diploid chromosome number 2n80 isoneofthe largest recorded for mammals Tarsiers are nocturnal and mainly arboreal progressing by leaps lrom branch to branch Adaptations for this habit include the presence of elongate tarsal bones in the hindloot and relatively large hindlimbs Grasping is enhanced by the presence of attened pads at the ends of the digits Tarsiers rest whtle clinging to vertical limbs Insects Compose the bulk of the diet Breeding is apparently aseasonal one young is produced Tarsiers are territorial at least during the mating periodl and occur in pairs One genus 3 species Sumatra the Philippines and some other islands Recognition Characters I no rhinarium present in all other prosimians 0 digits very elongate terminating in enlarged discs 120 Figure s4 skull blatarsiid TJISIDIX1l tArierttIruu 19114 Oauditory bulla extending laterally as a bony tube tube absent in other prosimiansl Fig 54L 1 size relatively small 22 43 cm 2 hindlimbs longer than forelimbs 3 claws on second and Ihird dlgtls oi hindtool and nails on remaining digits 4 tail long naked or sparsely haired often tulled at end 5 lot silky wavy 5 rostrum short 7 orbits enormous with prominent ridge around each Fig 54 3 upper and lower incisors well developed not equal in size upper incisors notseparated from incisors of opposite side lower incisors vertical Fig 54 9 molars trituberculav PRIMATES Dental formula 3 1 3 3 1 E 5 quot 3 Genus Tam39us 3 Tarsiers Remarks Hill 1955 summarized the anatomy and taxonomy of larsiers 121 PRIMATES SUBORDEH ANTHROPOIDEA Characters 1 muzzle without rhinarium 2 upper lip undivided lFig 495 3 orbit and temporal iossa separated by pastorbital plate 4 lacrimal iorarnen opening inside orbit 5 braincase relatively large 6 ioramen magnum t directed ven trally Family OEBIDAE New World monkeys Members of this lamin constitute the largest group oi New Worltl primates The absence of rump calluses an opposable thumb and bony ear tubes and the presence ol nostrils which Open laterally nails on the digits and six cheekteeth per jaw set cebids apart lrorn closely related families The tail is prehensile in some genera The skull is shown in Fig 55 Cebids are mostly diurnal Mom is nocturnal They are active and graceful progressing through trees with agile swinging and leaping movements Most live in territorial family units Their diet consists ol insects and other invertebrates small vertebrates lruit shoots and leaves Social behavior is relatively complex and communication is achieved by varied vocalizations facial expressions and other gestures ln howler monkeys Alouaua the larynx is modified especially in malesl into a large resonating chamber Howlers emit a loud penetrating roar Breeding takes place at any time of year Females bear one young Eleven genera 29 species Mexico Central and South America Recognition Characters 1 2 3 122 size small to medium 63183 cm forelimbs longer or shorter than hindlimbs pollex only slightly opposable or absent hallux opposable digits each bearing a flattened or narrow and keeled nail tail short Cacajaol or long prehen sile in some leg Ateles Alouatra Lagothrix no ischial callositles rump patchesl nostrils well separated directed laterally Figure 55 Skull ol 3 ebltl Ateles at V1 8 auditory bulla not extending laterally as a bony tube Fig 55f Z 12 i Dental formula 2 l 3 3 36 Compare with Callltrichidae Cercopi thecidae Callimiconidae Representative Genera Alouatta 5 Howler monkeys Aotus 1 A trivirgatus is the night monkey Ateles 4 Spider monkeys Cacay ao 3 Uakari monkeys Callicebus 3 Titi monkeys Cebus 4i Capuchins Lagothrix 2f Woolly monkeys Saimiri fZl Squirrel monkeys Remarks Comparative anatomy and taxonomy of cebids were treated by Hill 1960 1952 Behavior ecology and conservation were examined in volumes edited by Moynihan 1976andThorington and Heltne 1976 Rosenblum and Cooper 1968f summarized the biology of squirrel monkeys Carpenter s 1934f study on howler monkeys was one of the first thorough field studies of primates Family CALLIMICONIDAE Callimico This family is represented by only one living species Because it shares characters with both callitrichids p124 and cebids p122the callimico has beenataxonomic enigma The number of cheekteeth and some details of the skull are cebid like whereas external features long silky pelage nonopposable thumb clawed digits and general size and form are reminiscent of marmosets The form ofthe cheekteeth is intermediate between those of cebids and callitrichids 123 PRIMATES Almost nothing is known ol the habitsof callimicos in the wild Studies of captive animals Lorenz 1972 indicate that they are omnivorous The family is the basic social unit They hear only one young One genus 1 species Upper Amazon basin of Peru and Colombia Recognition Characters size small 4856 cm 2 forelimbs shorter than hindlimbs 3 pollex not opposable hallux opposable 4 digits each bearing a claw except for hallux which bears a flat nail tail long not prehensile no ischial callosities 7 nostrils well separated directed laterally 8 auditory bulla not extended laterally as a bony tube 5quot Dental formula 35 Compare with Cebidae Callitrichidae Genus Calimico 1 C goeldii is the callimico Remarks The foregoing account is based largely on Hershkovitz39 119m summary of the taxonomy and biology of Calfimico The anatomy of this mammal was described by Hill 1959 PRIMATES Family CALLITRICHIDAE Marmosets tamarins This family contains the smaller New World primates Theirsmall sizethick silky fur non opposable thumb clawed digits and dental Characters described below are distinguishing features The tail is long but not prehensile The pelage is often strikingly colored or variegated and the head insome iormsis adorned with manes mustaches or ear tufts The skull is illustrated in Fig 55 Figure 56 Skull of a cailitrichid lLeontideus x 3A Marmosets are diurnal primates of dry scrub and rainforest They do not brachiate instead they use all four limbs to scramble over branches in squirrellike fashion Movements are quick and jerky The dietconsistschieflyofinsectsandfruit But small vertebrates tree sap and leaves are consumed also Callitrichids are social occurring chiefly in family groups and are territorial Reproduction is seasonal Partition coincides with the onset oi the rainy season Females usually bear twins Four genera 14 species Panama and South America Recognition Characters I molars Iritubercular quadritubercular in other anthropoids Fig 56 1 size small 30789 les 2 forelimbs slightly longer or shorter than hindlimbs 3 pollex not opposable hallux oppos able 4 digits each bearing a law except for hallux which bears a flat naili tail long not prehensile 6 no ischial callosities 7 nostrils wellseparated directedlatere ally 8 auditory bulla not extending laterally as a bony tube 2 39l 3 2 Dental formula 2 17 3 E e 32 5 Compare with Cebidae Cercopitheci dae Callimiconidae Genera Callithrix l3 7 True marmosets Cebuella l C pygmaea is the pygmy marmoset Leontopithecus 1i 7 L rosalia is the lion marmoset Saguinus 9 Tamarins Remarks Hershkovilz 1978 provided an excellent review of the taxonomy and biology of marmosels Other useful references include Hill 1957p Kleiman 1977 Moynihan 1976 and Thoringlon and Helme 1976 MarmoseL 125 7 PRIMATES PRIMATES Family CERCOPITHEOIDAE Old World monkeys This is the largest and most diverse family of primates Arboreal or secondarily terrestrial cercopithecids range widely over Africa and Asia All digits have nails Both hallux and pollex are strongly opposable Prominent often brightly colored calluses are present on the rump Theskullofcercopithecidsisdistinguished from that of marmosets p124 and New World monkeys p122 by the presence of prominentbonyearcanalleig57Allcan stand upright but most progress quadrupedally Social interactions are complex and varied Communication is achieved chielly by varied calls and visual cues Facial expressions are relatively well devel oped the face is nearly naked usually dark in color infrequently yellow red or blue and has welldeveloped musculature Mustaches beards manes or other crests of hair on the loreparts aid visual communication Cercopithecids usually occur in family units are often territorial and aggressive particularly terrestrial forms have a well defined social structure and are often sexually dimorphic Cercopithecidsare mostlydiurnalSome Cercopithecus are omnivorous others eg Colobus Presbylis are herbivorous Colobus monkeys and langurs are es pecially agile brachiators Cercopithe cids shelter in trees rocks or caves Breeding is seasonal or aseasonal Normally one young is produced A menstrual cycle is probably present in all cercopithecids The life span may exceed two decades Members of this iamin are widely used for food as pets and as subiects of medical 126 research eg rhesus Cercopithecus mulatta monkey Six genera about 60 species Gibraltar Attica southern Arabia southeast Asia and adyacent islands Japan Recognition Characters 1 size medium 70185 cm 2 forelimbs slightly longer than hindlirrtbs 3 pollex opposable unless reduced or absent hallux opposable 4 digits each with flattened nail 5 tail absent or present short or long not prehensible 6 ischial callosities present 7 nostrils close together directed forward or downward B auditory bulla extending laterally as a bony tube Fig 57 2132 Dental formula g 32 Compare with Pongidae Cebidae Representative Genera Cercopilhecus including Cercocebus Cynopirhecus Erythrocebus Macaca MandriIus Miopithecus Papioand Theropithecus see Remarks 40 Guenons Vervets macaques tala poin baboons mandrills manga beys and patas monkeys Colobus 3 Colobus monkeys Nasalis 1 N Iarvatus is the proboscis monkey Presbytis 13 Langurs leafeating monkeys Remarks Van Gelder 1977 presented evidence of natural and arti cial hybridization among many species of Old World monkeys I follow him in relegating the currently recognized genera of macaquelike cercopithecids to one genus Cercopitltecus see above PRIMATES The literature on Old World monkeys is with cercopilhecid biology are induded in extensive and scattered A few samples are volumns cited above fur primates as a Hill 1966 1970 1974 and Napier and whole p112 Napier 197W Many other articles dealing Figure 57 Skulls oi cercupithxids A Comm x w a Cercopr39lhecux x 13 127 PRIMATES Family PONGIDAE Great Apes Pongids are primates specialized for great strength gorillas chimpanzees and orangutans and agility and speed in trees gibbons The lorelimbs are long and dexterity of the feet is pronounced The foreteet of gibbons are peculiar instead of grasping branches while brachiatingt the hands glide in hooklike fashion over the surface of the limb as the body swings underneath Pongids have notailThe skull of all forms is relatively massive and heavily ridged Fig 58 A supportive bridge of bone the simian shellquot connects the two sides of the lower jaw where they join Vision and hearing are the best dev eloped senses Vocalizations are varied and are amplified in gibbons by a disten sible throat sac Pongids occur in family groups consisting of one dominant adult male and one to several lemales and offspring Usually there is sexual dimorphism in size 128 or color As in cercopithecids p126 facial expressions play important roles in social interactions and the face is relatively naked and well muscled Chimpanzees use simple tools fashioned from natural objects egtwigsor whichthey fabricate themselves for a particular use Apes are diurnal and are mainly vegetarians although animal matter also is taken chimpanzees and gorillas are mostly terrestrial whereas gibbons and orangutans are arboreal Pongids rest on branches in trees Hylobaiesl instick nests on the ground Corila or in trees Chintpansee Pongo Females bear a single young at any time ol year These primates are favored by man as a source of food for zoo exhibits and or medical research Some species ergq gorillas orangutans have declined markedly in numbers because of exploitation of their preferred habitats tor timber and agriculture Four genera 8 species Africat southeast Asia and adjacent islands Figure 55 Skull 0 a oitgtd lChimpamec x u PRIMATES Recognition Characters An older but still uselul general bony shell present at posterior border reference to pongids is Yerkes and Yerkes or jaw symphysis 1929 More specific works include Schaller 1963 on Gorilla Bourne 1969 1972 and van LawickGoodall 1968 on Chimpansee and Carpenter 1940 and Chivers 1974 on Hylobales size medium to large to standing height oi180 cm 2 lorelimbs much longer than hindlimbs 3A pollex opposable unless reduced hallux opposable 4 digits each bearing a flattened or slightly keeled nail except tor hallux and pollex in gibbons which lack claws or nails 5 no tail 6 ischial callosities small Hylobatesl or absent 7 nostrils close together opening forward or downward B auditory bulla extending laterally as a bony tube Fig 58 2 1 2 3 Dental lormula 3 1 i 3 32 Genera Chimpansee Pan 1 C troglodytes is the chimpanzee Gorilla 1 C gorilla includes the mountain and coastal gorillas Hylobates including Symphalangus 6 Gibbons Pongo 1 P pygmaeus is the nranglltan Remarks The gibbons Hylobates have been placed in a separate family by some QM authors eg Elliott 1913 Napier and Napier 1967 While they do exhibit traits not common to other pongids such as habitual bipedal locomotion on the ground extremely long forelimbs and ischial callosities they closely resemble great apes in other features 119 PRIMATES Family HOMINIDAE Humans The primary features distinguishing hominids from other mammals are bipedalism and the extraordinary enlargement of the brain and associated braincase Fig 59 This evolutionary development afforded humans the capacity to develop complex cultures spoken languages and the ability to control many aspects of their envi ronment Numerous skeletal and muscular peculiarities that assist in support and balance are associated with the upright stance The habits of many groups of humans such as the foodgathering tribes of South America the Philippines New Guinea Africa and Australia are not For removed lrom those ol many other mammals Howevera completediscussion of the many and varied activitiesolhumans is beyond the scope of this book Females usually give birth to one young though multiple births of up to live or more are recorded Humans are sexually dimorphics One genus 1 species worldwide Recognition Characters Obraincase enormously inflated 59 Fig Iloolhrows forming rounded arch i parallel in other anthropoids Mesa 0 canines small scarcely if at all longer than other teeth large in other anthropoids lFig 59 1 size large to standing height of 200 cm 2 hindlimbs longer than forelimbs 3 pollex highly opposahle hallux not opposable 130 4 digits with attened nails 5 no tail 6 no ischial callosities 7 nostrils close together opening downward 8 auditory bulla extending laterally as a bony tube 21 Dental formula 212 3 32 Compare with Pongidae Genus Homo 1 H Sapiens is the onlyspecies of human Remarks Some authors consider humans to be no more than relatively specialized pongids Anderson 1967 implied that were it not for the anthropocentric nature of most scientists humans would properly be classified in a single family with the great apes PRIMATES Figure 59 Skull 0 a hominid Homo x VAL 131
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