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World Civilizations #1

by: Desiree Notetaker

World Civilizations #1 History 110a

Desiree Notetaker
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.77
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The first notes covered in class and textbook
World Civilizations
Class Notes
world civilizations, history, Archaeology, Paleolithic, Neolithic, homo sapiens, beginning, agriculture




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Desiree Notetaker on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 110a at California State University - Fullerton taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 111 views.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
WORLD CIVILIZATIONS 1. Earliest Human Societies Before writing, humans grasped various concepts in order for survival. It last for several million years. Thousands of years before the recording of history, humans populated the entire Earth except for Antarctica. Homo sapiens: “thinking man” or “skillful man.” Until recently it was assumed that man evolved through a process called natural selection. Hominid: A humanlike creature. Walked about in East Africa as early as 4.5 million years ago. Homo ergaster: The earliest forms of homo sapiens. Appeared 150,000 years ago and evolved 100,000 years ago. From there humans and their descendants formed languages and expanded to Southwest Asia, Europe and East Asia 75,000 years ago. Due to the Ice Age 17,000 years ago, the Pacific Basin froze and enabled the people to cross into North America. The rapid migration southward also led them into South America. Tool making is the earliest indicator of hominids and human beings. Both bone and stone were found to be in the Paleolithic era. These tools found have no function thus they were probably made for art. Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age) extended from the appearance of the tools found to about 10,000 BCE. Hunting and gathering was commonly in family groups or clans. During this time, human’s physical appearance and capacity to reason, plan, organize and create art changed. 17 types of Hominids evolved during this time. They came to an end for unknown reasons, but some indicate it was due to warfare, and others it was gradual absorption by a more advanced species, the Homo Sapiens. A famous example of the failed homos was the Neanderthal Man, who flourished in Europe then disappeared around 30,000 BCE. Physical changed occurred with the hominids and advanced in their skill work. They also adapted to the environment. Neolithic Age (New Stone Age) is during social breakthrough. In the Holocene Era, humans would depend less on hunting and gathering, and depend more on food production, thus we moved closer to water. It was also during this time that climate became drier. Neolithic (food-producing) Revolution is a time that humans begin to grow or breed their own food. Dramatic series of changes in human societies resulted, such as 1) settling down in permanent locations with expanding populations, 2) creation of property of land, livestock and sources of water, 3) systematic regulation was developed to enforce the rights of access to land and water –Codes of law, 4) specialization of labor. Believed that agriculture emerged in a region of the Near East called the Fertile Crescent. By 7000 BCE agriculture and livestock breeding appeared in the Near East, Central America, South America, northern China, southern China, southeast Asia, northeast Africa, West Africa. Civilizations arose and each shared 8 attributes: 1) primarily rural, 2) based on peasant agriculture or livestock breeding, 3) maintained life in balance with their natural environment, 4) based heavily on gods and spirits, 5) religions emphasized sacrifice and ritual, 6) relied on religious specialists to communicate with gods, 7) believed time to be cyclic, and 8) their social values emphasized kinship and the clan. Death at young ages and decline in health was common. The Yellow River (sorrow of China) was used to farm in Northern China, although it was ruinous at times. Deserts and drier lands made it harder to grow food, thus stockbreeding was used. Communities near oceans, lakes and seas would craft canoes, hooks and nets, and later begin voyages. First metal used was the soft copper. When copper is combined with lead and tin ores, it becomes bronze, a substance that is harder and more resistant to weathering. It is difficult to make, the weight is excessive, cannot keep a fine edge, and it was difficult to obtain during this time. After the Bronze Age, iron was discovered, and resulted in making of tools (iron plow) for agriculture, weapons and armor, and utensils. Iron tools expanded production. Iron ore is the more common metallic ore. The Indo-European people, Hitties, who lived in modern day Turkey, were the first to smelt and temper iron. By 12,000 B.C.E. the idea spread all through the Middle Eastern and the Egyptian people. Reflection Questions 1) What is the term used for “thinking or skillful man”? 2) The Food-Producing Revolution first occurred during what age? 3) The first farmers were who? 4) What is the oldest known continuous civilization in world history? 5) What caused the increased number of people during the Neolithic Age? 6) What kind of adaptions did the hominids need to do during climate change? Agrarian civilization: society whose economy is based on producing crops and farmland Pastoral civilization: society with influence of animals Irrigation: watering land to make it ready for agriculture Paleolithic Era 3.5 million -10,000 B.C.E. Early homo sapiens appear 150,000 – 100,000 B.C.E. Humans develop language 80,000 B.C.E. Humans migrate out of Africa and into major continents 80,000 – 15,000 B.C.E. Neolithic Age commences 10,000 B.C.E. Bronze Age 7,000 B.C.E. Agrarian civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt 3,500 B.C.E. Iron Age Begins 1,500 B.C.E. Homo habilis 3.5-4million years ago (tool makers) Homo erectus 1.5-1.8 million years ago (bipedal walkers) Homo ergaster 150,000 – 100,000 years ago Homo sapiens 100,000 – 30,000 years ago (modern humans)


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