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Week 1 Reading for Intro to Rehabilitation Services AHRS 327

by: Brennan Schneider

Week 1 Reading for Intro to Rehabilitation Services AHRS 327 AHRS 327

Marketplace > Northern Illinois University > Nursing and Health Sciences > AHRS 327 > Week 1 Reading for Intro to Rehabilitation Services AHRS 327
Brennan Schneider
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AHRS 327 Chapter 4 notes
Intro to Rehabilitation Services
Jeanni Bonine
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brennan Schneider on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AHRS 327 at Northern Illinois University taught by Jeanni Bonine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro to Rehabilitation Services in Nursing and Health Sciences at Northern Illinois University.

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Date Created: 01/24/16
Chapter 4- Overview of disabilities  The ultimate goal of the counselor-client partnership is t achieve life goals by coordinating resources, improving health, and enhancing functioning  Disability: a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities  Disability is more accurately viewed as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition, example disease and contextual factors, example, environmental and personal factors  Individuals with adult onset physical disabilities often do not receive guidance in how to modify their exercise and diet as their lifestyle becomes more sedentary  Prevention of health problems and promotion of healthy living have become increasingly emphasized in our healthcare system  Compared with people without disabilities, people with disabilities have less participation in health promotion and preventative health activities including: o Less preventive use of the healthcare system o Higher rates of chronic conditions o Lower rates in social participation o Lower rates of recommended health behaviors  Living With a disability o There has been a shift from acute illness (pneumonia, influenza) being the leading causes of illness and death in the United States to chronic illnesses (Heart disease and cancer) o Physical health, psychological health, social health and spiritual health are all components of health and wellness that apply to everyone including persons with disabilities o Some people with disabilities have relatively good overall health and practice healthy living o A person’s life does not have to be defined by a disability o “Definition of self”  Categories of disability o You could have two individuals with the same diagnosis and their functional situation may not be alike at all o Physical Functioning: Problems and solutions  Spinal cord injury  The point in the spinal cord where damage has occurred determines the functioning that an individual has after a spinal cord injury  Arthritis  A disease of disorder that impacts physical functioning  Rheumatoid Arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the normal immune response is directed against an individual’s own tissues including the joints, tendons and bones  Chronic back pain  Pain is always a subjective experience, and the term has three important components: o A sensory component indicating biological understandings o An emotional component o A component as it is defined by the individual  Pain in three Dimensions o A Sensory-discriminative dimension o A Cognitive-evaluative dimension o The Affective-motivational dimension  Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  Carpal tunnel syndrome is most often associated with injury due to repetitive motion such as typing for hours at a time, or repeatedly carrying heavy dishes in a restaurant  Obesity, smoking, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis have also been associated with carpal tunnel syndrome  Fibromyalgia o The Chronic and widespread nature of the symptoms of FM can negatively affect virtually all aspects of a person’s life, including psychological health. o Because FM is a syndrome that has a wide range of possible symptoms and because diagnosis comes largely from patient self-report, symptoms can be confused with other disorders o No cause has been discovered  Amputations are another condition that impacts physical functioning and the underlying reason for amputation can stem from either an injury, a disease process, or from a congenital limb anomaly present at birth  Sensory functioning: Problems and Solutions o Vision  Vision impairment varies from individual to individual, and blindness to the extent of not even seeing light is actually very rare  Vision field loss has a primary impact on mobility because it is important to be able to detect objects around us not only directly in front of us  Scotoma- loss of vision  High risk of vision loss, people with diabetes o Hearing  Involves detection, transmission, analysis and integration of sound into meaningful symbols  Hearing loss is classified as conductive (involving the outer and middle ear), sensorineural (middle ear) and mixed (a combination of conductive and sensorineural)  Cochlear implants  Deaf  Deafness or other severe hearing impairments at a young age, have an impact on the development of language and speech and has significant socialization effects because of interference in child-to-child communication  Cognitive Functioning: Problems and Solutions o Mental Retardation:  Substantial limitations in present functioning; sub-average intellectual functioning; and concurrent related limitations in two or more of the following adaptive skills area; communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, or work  Mental Retardation manifests before age 18 o Traumatic Brain Injury:  Closed head injury refers to injuries in which the brain sustains damage from rapid acceleration and deceleration from a motor vehicle accident or fall  Open head injury refers to injuries such as by stabbing or gunshot where the actual brain matter has been penetrated  Produces a wide continuum of outcomes ranging from death to normal function  Much of the recovery occurs in the first six months after injury  Interventions tend to vary somewhat depending on the stage of service:  Acute rehabilitation services focus on physical support to prevent problems related to come and inactivity  Sub-acute care  Post-acute rehabilitation  Other individuals benefit from intense physical skill intervention from occupational and physical therapists, which may range from re-learning to walk to learning to button a shirt with one hand due to paralysis on one side of the body (hemiplegia)  Emotional/Psychiatric Functioning: Problems and Solutions o Schizophrenia disorders are a complicated set of psychotic conditions that may vary in course, severity and outcome, but share similar symptoms and dysfunctions and are the best conceptualized as a spectrum disorder  Become evident during late adolescent and early adulthood  “Very loud thoughts”  A diminution of thoughts is also reflected in poverty of speech (Alogia) o The clinical features of schizophrenia disorders are usually divided into two categories referred to as (a) positive symptoms and (b) negative symptoms  Positive symptoms: overtly out-of-the-ordinary reactions and behaviors, including, hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, catatonic and grossly disorganized behaviors  Negative symptoms: include decreased or missing reactions and expressions compared to what would be expected o Mood Disorders (Major depressive disorders and bipolar disorders)  The most debilitating mood disorders are recurrent, episodic, and cause significant functional deficits in social, educational, occupational and other areas of live  Depressive episodes are characterized by consistently depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities throughout most of the day and for at least a two week period  They are marked by a unusually “high” or happy mood and sometimes feeling irritable or “jumpy” for at least one week  A person with mixed episode meets the criteria for both types of depressive and manic episodes  The goals of psychiatric rehabilitation are assist the person with severe and persistent mental illness to achieve meaningful recovery, maximum community integration and the highest possible quality of life  Medication is considered a cornerstone of effective treatment for acute episodes of severe mental illness  After the most debilitating symptoms from acute episodes are controlled through medication intervention, psychosocial treatments, start to play a very important role in the recovery process  All of the interventions help provide individuals the necessary skills to lead productive lives  Utilizing disability information for rehabilitation planning o Each individual is unique and his or her experience of disability is unique o It is an important skill for rehabilitation professionals to be able to translate medical information in to how an individual’s life is affected disability o When we first work with an individual with a disability, it is a good idea to clarity whether the condition appears to be temporary or permanent and if the situation is expected to improve, remain the same, or deteriorate o Rehabilitation professionals need to develop an understanding not only of the medical concepts of disease and injury but also an understanding of how health behavior, other personal characteristics and the environment influence life functioning o It can be extremely rewarding to assist individuals with disabilities to enhance all aspects of their functioning including promotion health behaviors and defeating health- limiting behaviors


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