Class Note for OPTI 510L with Professor Burge at UA
Class Note for OPTI 510L with Professor Burge at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
OPTI 420521 Introductory Optomechanical Engineering 5 Prisms a Tunnel diagrams and reduced thickness b Motion of prisms beam steering image rotation 0 Common prisms and uses 900 Beam deviation Right angle prism Porro Right angle prism with roof Penta prism and roof penta prism lm age rotators Dove a1ray K mirrors Abbe folded Schmidt Delta prism Pechan 180O beam deviation plane mirror Porro Cube corner Other Rhomboid Porro erecting prisms Abbe erecting prisms Anamorphic prisms References MilHDBK141 W Smith Modem Optical Engineering McGraWHill 2000 W Wolfe Nondispersing prisms Ch4 in Hanc mok of Optics Vol11 2nd ed McGraW Hill 1996 Yoder P R Design andMaunting ofPiisms andMiwors in Optical Instruments SPIE vol TT32 1998 D Swift Image rotation devices 7 a comparative survey Optics and Laser Technology Vol 4 pp 175188 1972 Prof Shack s prism program Tunnel diagams and reduced distance The optical performance of a prism can be represented by a combination ofthe methods used for plane minors and optical windows Unfolding All ofthe re ections can beunfolded Figure 416 Smith Re ections in glass Use total internal re ection if n sin 9 gt 1 for all angles ofincidence This is lossless However the surface must be protected A little smudge ruins it For n 152 critical angle is 41 Otherwise must use re ective coatings Optical SciencesAZEISZI 5 pnsms H Eurge Lvnmisty if Arizona Size of elliptical beamprint De ned by intersection of light cone with tilted plane Center of ellipse Elliptical 39beam pnnt39 Optical axis v Axis 39 39 intercept l Mirror E 1 Face VleW reflecting i of mirror surface G F Diameter of beam reference plane v D Optical axis 06 r Reference plane 1 to axis l r w Extreme outside ray typical FIGURE 88 Geometric relationships used to de ne the beam print of a rotationally symmetric mclined mirror Adapted from Schubert E Mach Des 51 128 1979 WD2Ltanoc AEF E Wcos0L 2sin0 0t GA2F AW F WCOSOC B 2 A2 4G212 2sin0oc Yoder Paul R Jr OptoMecham cal Systems Design 3 Ed CRC Press 2006 Optical Sciences 420521 5 Prisms 3 J H Burge University of Arizona Reduced distance Remember that plane parallel plate causes an image shift nl t n t The effect of the image shift from the glass can be accommodated by replacing the glass with the airspace equivalent If the path length in glass with refractive index n is L then the reduced distance is Ln Real glass thickness L gt IReduced thickness Ln Optical Sciences 420521 5 Prisms J H Burge University of Arizona Tunnel diagrams To represent the firstorder properties of the prism first unfold all re ections then squash the length to the reduced distance 4 Penta prism gives 90 deviation Optical Sciences 420521 5 Prisms J H Burge University ofArizona Image orientations E rect R Reverted 51 H Inverted Prism deviation Direct vision 45 deviation 90 deviation 180 deviation Optical Sciences 420521 J H Burge University of Arizona 5 Prisms H 180 Rotated displacement gt Prism Rotation quoto l Id sgnJ 5zJ4 th 414er Lin or 574 L05 i E ace VAN7 lv Jew Kory x vx39 duck a I39 Even qrufea u EV h l y 39 K 7quot 0424 d 6 re p Lbnr 0amp0 Wily Ln lme Evea 0J1 4 4 1 0mm Sciences420521 5 Pnsms J H Burge University ofAnzona 9o0 deviation prisms Rigm angle prism MilHdbklztl Amici prism sometimes called a roofpn39sm The V indicates roof mm My mum m m um 22 Am W my mum u Emma my mumm um um and mdlcuung Ihu mmgo mu m u tnmcatzd run1915 m mm mgm mmuu n m mm mm Smith OpncalScxencesAZElSZI 5 ans y H Eurge Umvemty uf Anzma Porro prism Object This gives 180 deviation inversion Deviation is insensitive to prism pitch Tunnel diagram Figure Ilia Porto prism tunnel dingram mm 1329 Pom prism Optical Scimces 420521 5 Prim J H Burge University ofAnzona Applica ons of Form prisms INVERTED IMAGE FROM OBJECTIVE ERECT IMAGE m manna T0 EVELENS Figure 424 Form prism system rst type in indicating the way the Poi10 system Greets an inverted image lb Pom prisms are usually fabricated wiih rounded ends to save space and weighi Noie chni the spacing between the prisms has been shown increased for clarity INVERTED Figure 425 Pom piiem system second type 3 indicating the erection of an inverted image his system is shown made from two prisms in a and from three prisms in b siniui OpticalSciencesAZUSZI 5 anis in i H Eurge Umvexaly uf Anznni Penta prism Deviates light by 90 independent of prism pitch angle This is one ofthe magic pIisms Roof penta piism SILVERED A 45 k SILVERED l 90quot a a 5mm What about roll and yaw OpucalScimces4ZO521 5 Pnsms 11 J H Burge Univ army of Arizona Direct Vision prisms Rhomboid v Figure 430 la Rhomboid prism rbl An equivalent mirror systemv gt Bath systems displace the opti cal axis Withom deviation 0139 reorientation of the image a M This is a magic prism It deviates the light but does not change the angle even if the prism is rotated about all axes Can be used in a system to create binocular output Axis ui rumlian Pl 1 3 Microscope Observation Tube Prisms and Baamsplltter To Eyepiece To Eyepiece Parallel Cyl id ical l Parallel 9 Pan cylindrical Ll m Rhnmhuld P P Prlsln Rhnmhmd Prism Eeamspllner Figure 1 ngm From Objecllve Mierdberl Optical Sciences420521 5 Pnsms 12 J H Burge University of Arizona Image rotators For 9 rotation about optical axis Image rotates 29 Dove pn39sm is most common Smith 09ml Sciences 420521 5 Pnsms J H Burge University ofAnzona 13 Dove prisms can be used in pairs and arrays Dwulr Swift Opucal Sclmces 420521 5 Pnsms J H Burge Unxversxty of Anzona 14 Pechan prism Compact image rotator Expensive M Hdbk141 Swift Opu39cal Sciences 420521 J H Burge University of Arizona 5 Prisms Fu 22 PeclIAn Imam 15 Pechanischmidt or RoofPrism for image inversion Phas cwIlns Schmlm prism Roam gt Eyepiece c1 coalan OpncalScxencesAZElSZI 5 ans y H Eurge Umvemty uf Anzma m Abbe Rotation prism Fig 12 Abba woe rozalov This can be made from 3 plane mirrors 7 same geomeuy Kmirrors Also it can be folded Fig l5 Fuldud Alma ypu 10mm Swift OpncalScxencesAZElSll 5 ans y H Eurge Umvemty uf Anzma 17 Add a roof AbbeKeenig for inversion Fa r KR Few surfaces Look at coordinate sytem in and out Why does the roof convert the prism from an image rotation prism to an image inversion prism Optical Sciences 420521 5 Prisms 18 J H Burge University of Arizona Schmidt rotator prism Compact mags mm Folded Dove pnsm Must be usedm collimatedlxght Hg 1 Schm dllv vml W a Schmidl lvpe ralalm hmnel diagmm Add aroof waft OpncalScxencesAZElSZI 5 ans y H Eurge ande df Anzam w Corner Cube aka Cube Corner retrore ector 3 mirrors arranged at 900 like a comer Magic prism Light that hits all 3 mirrors is re ected in the opposite direction as the incident light independent of orientation of the prism Prism solid glass uses inside re ections can be TIR or silver These are often used in arrays Hollow uses rst surface SMR Spherical mounted mirrors retrore ector Optical Sciences 420521 5 Prisms 20 J H Burge University of Arizona Anamorphic prism pairs Expands beam in one direction not in the other Used to create circular beam from laser diodes Optical Sciences 420521 5 Prisms J H Burge University of Arizona 21 Prisms from Shack R t 9 r w I 1 MM ivth 7551me RtFLE X 0 quot Mun 5139 f k T 70 39Davmrlm ffg Rump cue dama saw 19139 g 1 391 IEa39 Dam w us tiemm 39l RSV rz 61c on Warm 7115 Dave 1 mks Ken39snae 650 Palms waxyass d chYIM 515139 39 ram Ann1 W its V armmm Am 5m Opucal Smences 420521 5 Pnsms 22 J H Burge University ofAnzona
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