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Week 1 Readings Notes for AHRS 472

by: Brennan Schneider

Week 1 Readings Notes for AHRS 472 BIOS 311

Marketplace > Northern Illinois University > Biology > BIOS 311 > Week 1 Readings Notes for AHRS 472
Brennan Schneider
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About this Document

Notes for chapters 1-4
Functional Human Anatomy
Daniel Olson
Class Notes
AHRS 472




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brennan Schneider on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS 311 at Northern Illinois University taught by Daniel Olson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Functional Human Anatomy in Biology at Northern Illinois University.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
 Chapter 1: Introductory Questions o What is Occupational Therapy?  Occupation: Activity  Therapy: Treatment of an illness or disability  Goal: End toward which effort is directed  Activity: State or condition of being involved  Independence: State or condition of being self-reliant  Function: Action for which a person is specifically fitted o Occupational Therapy is a practice that uses goal-directed activity to promote independence in function o Areas of Occupation: Various life activities, including activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living, education, work, play, leisure and social participation o Occupational Performance: The ability to carry our activities of daily life (includes areas of occupation) o Levels of OT practitioner  OT  OTA o Why Refer to Both “Patient” and “Client”  In a hospital or rehab setting us patient  Working in a mental health facility or training center use client o Kinds of activities  Preparatory Activities: which help get the client ready for purposeful activities  Range of motion  Exercise  Strengthening  Stretching  Contrived Activities  Are made-up activities that may include some of the same skills required for the occupation o EX: tying shoes  Occupation-centered activities are performed in the natural setting (physical, social and temporal) o Summary:  A person pursuing a career in occupational therapy must be ready to seek solutions to help clients engage in everyday living. OT practitioners work with diverse clients who have varying abilities, limitations and desires. Creative persons who have an interest in science and health care and who like working with clients of all ages and abilities will find the career in occupational therapy rewarding  Chapter 2: Looking back: A History of Occupational Therapy o Moral Treatment: was grounded in the philosophy that all people, even the most challenged, are entitled to consideration and human compassion o “We exist in the present, yet are future oriented. To make sense of the present and future, we must have knowledge about and an appreciation of the past. o The history of occupational therapy can be traced with two threads that are intertwined  Social, political and cultural thread identifies the many currents of human events that have influenced the development of occupational therapy through time  Represents the people of occupational therapy profession and how they have influenced the direction of the profession o The Origination of the term occupational therapy is ascribed to William Rush Dunton. Later, George Barton  William Rush Dunton Jr, considered the father of occupational therapy o Two pieces of federal legislation provided the impetus for the development or expansion of vocational rehabilitation programs that often included OT practitioners o In 1921, the membership voted to change the name of the National Society of the Promotion of Occupational Therapy to American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) o The time from 1942 to 1960 is often called the period of the Rehabilitation Movement o American s with Disabilities Act of 1990 o Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) o The Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process delineates language and concepts that describe the focus of the profession o Summary:  By studying the history of occupational therapy, we gain knowledge that will enhance our current practice. Occupational therapy grew out of the rising social consciousness of the early 20 century and became a profession in March 1917. It evolved out of Moral Treatment in psychiatric facilities, rehabilitation in sanitariums, and restoration for soldiers injured in battle. The profession views the use of occupation as a course of treatment. Changes in society have often meant changes in the profession. Occupational therapy have evolved through merging theory and research while focusing on health and function. As a field of practice, occupational therapy’s history of a holistic approach and use of occupation make it unique from other health care services  Chapter 3: Philosophical Principles and Values in Occupational Therapy o Metaphysical: refers to questions concerned with the nature of humankind o Epistemology: is related to the “nature, origin, and limits of human knowledge” and investigates questions such as “how do we know things” and “how do we know that we know” o Axiology: concerned with the study of values o Reductionistic approach: humankind is reduced to separately functioning body parts o Holistic approach: emphasized the organic and functional relationship between the parts and the whole being. This approach maintains that a person is a whole-an interaction of biological, psychological, sociocultural and spiritual elements o Humans are actively involved in controlling and determining their own behavior and are capable of changing behavior as desired o Occupation refers to “the ordinary and familiar things that people do everyday” o Areas of Practice in OT  Sensory integration  Education  Gerontology  Developmental disabilities  School systems  Technology  Work programs  Home and community health  Mental health  Physical disabilities o OT Constant Elements  Occupation is both means and end  Humans area active beings  Engagement in occupations  Quality of life  Holistic approach  Purposeful activities  Adaptation  Humanistic approach  Client-centered approach  Learning: experience, thinking, feeling, and doing o Occupation as a means: is the use of a specific occupation to bring about a change in the client’s performance o Occupation as an end: is the desired outcome or product intervention, and it is derived from the person’s values, experiences and culture o The philosophical base of occupational therapy defines individuals adaptation as “a change in function that promotes survival and self-actualization” o Altruism: is the unselfish concern for the welfare of others o Equality: refers to treating all individuals equally with an attitude of fairness and impartiality and respecting each individual’s beliefs, values, and lifestyles in the day-to- day interactions o Freedom: an individual’s right to exercise choice and to “demonstrate independence, initiative, and self-direction o Justice: is the need for all OT practitioners to abide by the laws that govern the practice and to respect the legal rights of the client o Dignity: the uniqueness of each individual is emphasized. o Truthfulness: the value demonstrated through behavior that is accountable, honest and accurate, and that maintains one’s professional competence o Prudence: is the ability to demonstrate sound judgement, care and discretion  Chapter 4: Current Issues and emerging Practice Areas o Six emerging areas of practice:  Aging in place  Driver assessments and training programs  Community health and wellness  Needs of children and youth  Ergonomics consulting  Technology and assistive-device developing and consulting o Assistive Technology:  Or adaptive technology, commonly refers to “products, devices or equipment, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, that are used to maintain, increase, or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities” o Evidence-based practice o Educators hope to bridge the clinical practice and the theory gap so that students become practitioners who use current research and sound judgement to benefit their clients o OT practitioners must be aware of infringement from other professionals on their scope of practice and be proactive in such situations o Summary:  The centennial vision provides a message of growth and support for the profession. Continued evidence supporting occupational therapy practice reinforces the work and ensures that the profession will thrive. The diversity of clients, as well as the diversity in practitioners, makes the profession exciting and valuable in the changing health care system. OT practitioners will need to continue to advocate for the profession and be involved in policy and reimbursement issues


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