CHM 115 Week 2 Notes
CHM 115 Week 2 Notes CHM 11500 - 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Padgett on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 11500 - 001 at Purdue University taught by Cynthia A Harwood in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Lecture 2 -24 1 amu=1.661*10 g 23 1 mole=6.022*10 Solute, Solvent, Solution o Solute: “the substance that is dissolved in the solvent” (see pg. 139 of textbook) o Solvent: “the substance in which the solute dissolves” (see pg. 139 of textbook) o Solution: see homogenous mixture on pg. 77 of textbook An acid produces H ion when dissolved in water A base produces OH ions when dissolved in water The interaction between H and water is very strong and forms H O 3 + Lecture 3 Strong Acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO H SO , HClO 3 2 4 4 Weak Acids: HF, H PO3, C4 COOH3(or HC H O ) 2 3 2 Strong Bases: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH) , Sr(OH) ,2Ba(OH) 2 2 Weak Bases: NH 3 If there is more oxygen, the acid will end in –ic; if there is less oxygen, the acid will end in –ous When strong acids and bases react, they will form water and an ionic salt Dimensional Analysis Use ratios in order to convert between units Ratios=conversion factors 55mph→cm/s o 55mph x 1hr/60min x 1min/60s x 5280ft/1mi x 12in/1ft x 2.54cm/1in =2458.72 cm/s =2460 cm/s Significant Figures Nonzero digits are significant If a zero is between nonzero digits then the zero is significant If there are zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit then the zeros are not considered significant Any zeros that are trailing and are to the right of a decimal are significant When a number ends in zeros but they aren’t to the right of a decimal then the numbers are not necessarily significant o Use scientific notation If a number is known with complete certainty, then the number is exact Rounding If digit needing to be dropped is >5 then the last digit that will remain is increased by 1 If digit needing to be dropped is <5 then the last digit that will remain is left alone If 5 is the digit to be dropped and is followed by nonzero digits, the digit to be retained is increased by one If 5 is the digit to be dropped and is followed by only zeros, the last digit to be retained is increased by one if it is odd and if it is even then it will remain the same Operations Multiplication & Division: the answer will contain the same amount of sig. figs. as the number that has the fewest number of sig. figs. Addition & Subtraction: the answer will contain the same number of decimal places as the number with the fewest decimal places Potential and Kinetic Energy This is energy that is stored in molecules o Stored energy is potential energy o Not all molecules store the same amount of energy Potential energy is converted to kinetic energy when fuel is burned Energy is can’t be created or destroyed, it can only be converted between forms-This is the Law of Conservation of Energy 2 KE=1/2 m v Gases In a gas, the particles are very far apart and spread out, and they move randomly Pressure Pressure is caused when atoms and molecules collide into the walls of whatever container they are in Pressure is force/unit The SI unit for pressure is Pa (pascal) 2 5 2 14.7 1b/in (psi) 1.01325*10 Pa (1 Pascal=1 Newton/m ) 1 atm 1.01325 bar 760 torr 760 mmHg (1 mmHg = 1 torr) Ideal Gas Law: PV=nRT
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