Class Note for PTYS 206 with Professor Yelle at UA
Class Note for PTYS 206 with Professor Yelle at UA
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
It appears to me that they who in proof of any assertion rely simply on the weight of authority without adducing any argument in support of it act very absurdly l on the contrary wish to be allowed freely to question and freely to answer you without any sort of adulation as well becomes those who are in search of truth Vincenzo Galilei Galileo s father Ozymandias by Percy Bysshe Shelley I met a traveller from an antique land Who said quotTwo vast and trunkless legs of stone Stand in the desert Near them on the sand Half sunk a shattered visage lies whose frown And wrinkled lip and sneer of cold command Tell that its sculptor well those passions read Which yet survive stamped on these lifeless things The hand that mocked them and the heart that fed And on the pedestal these words appear My name is Ozymandias King of Kings Look on my works ye mighty and despair Nothing beside remains Round the decay Of that colossal wreck boundless and bare The lone and level sands stretch far away Diagram of the Inner Solar System Top39iew Diagram of the Inner Solar System Side View Outer Solar System Top View Outer Solar System Side View Some Fun Links httDcseo1 Oohvs utked uquidrviavakeplerkepler h tm httpgaieoandeinsteinphysicsvirginiaedumorest uffflashletskeplerGhtm httDwwwphvsicssisuedutomlevKepler12htm httpianusastroumded uiavadirorbitsssvhtml httDianusastroumdeduSoarSvstems How Fast is the Earth Moving Orbit is approximately circular e0017 with a radius of r15gtlt1010 meters Circumference of orbit is an 94gtlt101O meters Orbital period is P1 year 32x107 seconds Velocity v 2nrP 94gtlt101O meters 32gtlt107 seconds v 30x104 meterssecond 30 kms Be careful that you don t fall off 39 Galileo Galilei 15641642 The First Modern Scientist Galileo s work was characterized by innovative experiments careful and far reaching analysis and sophisticated mathematics He contributed to a wide range of scientific investigations in addition to astronomy He generalized results in a way that had not been done before and along with Kepler paved the way for Newton When Newton said that he stood on the shoulders of giants he was talking about Galileo httpwwwgroupsdcsstandacukhistoryMathematiciansGalileohtml In April 1609 a spyglass was made in Paris with a magnification of 3 Galileo pointed this to the heavens Thus motivated he made an 8 power by August and a 20 power by October Galileo s Discoveries The moons of Jupiter Sunspots Mountains on the Moon Phases of Venus Previously unseen stars Our Moon is bumpy I 391 It is not the perfect sphere expected in the divine heavens Galileo s Drawings Jupiter has Moons Galileo s sketches Jupiter s Galilean Satellites The Galileo Spacecraft 39 orbited Galileo discovered 4 1 Jupiterfor 5 moons of Jupiter lo years Europa Ganymede and Callisto finding in effect a mini solar system and proving that at least some objects do not orbit the Earth Using his telescope Galileo could see many more stars than were visible to the naked eye In the drawing to the right Galileo shows his observations of the new stars along with the brighter stars The stars visible to the naked eye are outlined for emphasis Galileo reasoned correctly that the Milky Way was made up of thousands of these dim stars Phases of Venus m I E 339 a Ptolemy s model Venus does not have a full phase as Galileo observed Dcfcrcnt of Sun Epicycle of Venus f l Deferent of Venus revolves at same rate as dcfcrcnt of Sun Copernicus Model Venus has a full phase Full 0t 10 4 o Gibbons sun Gibbous 0t 15 0t 15 Crescent Crescent 1 42 New 0 58 I 42quot v Earth Galileo the Heretic In 1632 Galileo published the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems in which he advocated the heliocentric Copernican view of the Universe My dear Kepler what would you say of the learned here who replete with the pertinacity of the asp have steadfastly refused to cast a glance through the telescope What shall we make of this Shall we laugh or shall we cry Letter from Galileo Galilei to Johannes Kepler Salviati Sagredo and Simplicio discuss the Universe Galieo on The Galileo was a vocal advocate of the Copernican system The church ordered him to be silent but Galileo refused Choosing instead to ridicule the Church authorities He was put on trial threatened with torture and made to reoant Thereafter he was kept under house arrest for the remainder of his life The Catholic Church reopened the Galileo Trial in 1992 and reversed its decision Galileo s Incline Plane Experiments Need to measure the change HOW do Objects fall of distance with time Measurement of time 1 Heartbeat too irregular 2 Pendulum too awkward 3 Lutejust right Strings were stretched across the path of the ball close enough to hear a twang Then they were separated to give twangs at equal intervals Pendulums nearly return to their release heights The period is independent of the bob weight The period is independent of the amplitude The square of the period is proportional to the length Lighter pendulums come to rest faster than heavy ones 397 c tSS Fircnzc Galileo contemplating hale Hale stones of different sizes fell at the same speed Galileo searched for mathematical laws that described the motion of falling bodies much as Kepler discovered mathematical laws describing the motion of planets His results included Objects fall at the same speed independent of mass The distance traversed by a falling object increases as the square of the time This contradicts Aristotle s theories which were the still thoughts of the day Describing Motion Position The distance from one place to another Vector has magnitude and direction Units meters miles Velocity v Change in position with time Vector magnitude speed and direction Units meterssecond milesheur Acceleration a we use the symbol 9 for gravitational acceleration Change in velocity with time Vector magnitudeand direction Uhi ts metersSecond2 jmilteshourssiecond Constant Acceleration distancetime dt Then d vt From 39di 339ag velocity M t Note this is the Change of distance over the Change in time SEW v0 Motion of a falling object An ioibject fails a distance starting at d 121th rest What is its impact velocity v gt We want to knw the velocity and we knw the distance traveled and the acceleration Jumping Niagara Falls v 2dg V2 Where g98m d 55 m Then v 33 ms v 118 kmhr Drop of 180 feet 55 meters Pretty silly thought plunging off the Niagara falls u 1 4g 4Irva nraara4oo E d a 4 4 a y F a A
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