Step Up--Tegrity Notes
Step Up--Tegrity Notes PE 101-009
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amie Fortman on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PE 101-009 at Indiana State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 202 views. For similar materials see Fitness for Life in Physical Education at Indiana State University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Step Up: Tegrity Notes *Prosocial Behavior—any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person *Altruism—aiding another person without the anticipation of any type of external reward *Bystander Intervention—intervening in an emergency, helping in a non-emergency, intervention can be direct or indirect **I have witnessed a situation at least once where someone’s health/safety was in danger: Drinking too much—94% Hazing—29% Being taken advantage of sexually—41% Discrimination/Harassment—54% ***Almost 90% said a problem could have been solved. *Helping is based on: individual, situational (severity of the need, number of other bystanders, and possible cost), and victim characteristics *Bystander Effect—phenomenon in which someone is less likely to intervene in an emergency situation when others are present than when he or she is alone. **Why don’t people help?—Because helping others is not just one decision Helping requires several sequential decisions to be made. Failure at any one of the steps will result in no help. Multiple factors can prevent the right decision from being made: 1. Notice the event Two reasons people don’t know a problem exists or is about to occur: Other people/events create distractions Sometimes we don’t want to notice. Strategies to notice: Be aware of your surroundings Look for warning signs/anticipate any type of problem Consider the best intervention strategies and/or exit strategies if you do notice one 2. Interpret the situation as a problem/emergency 2 reasons we don’t care: Ambiguity—sometimes it’s not clear if someone needs help Conformity 2 types of conformity: Informational influence—when a situation is ambiguous we will use other people’s behavior as information for how to act. We thus conform to the group in order to be accurate. o Pluralistic ignorance—phenomenon in which bystanders assume that nothing is wrong because no one else looks concerned. Normative influence—we conform to the group’s rules in order to fit in, to be accepted, to be liked, or to avoid dislike. But it can create a spiral of silence Strategies to interpret a problem: Investigate an ambiguous event further, even if others appear unconcerned Ask others what they think Be mindful of peer pressure and be prepared to act on it If you are a victim, let other people know you need help o Don’t be afraid to take a stand; choose to be respected rather than liked 3. Assume personal responsibility The main reason we don’t: Diffusion of responsibility—phenomenon by which each bystander’s sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses increases. People incorrectly assume that someone else will help, but then no one does! Steps to overcome this: Don’t assume that someone else will do something. Take it upon yourself to help. Publicly state your intention to help. You can decide later if intervention is unnecessary Enlist others to help. 4. Know how to help People assume they lack the skills or competence to help. Learn the skills and strategies to step up, depending on the situation Practice the skills if possible. Be prepared. 5. Implement the help Reasons why people don’t: Perhaps it is dangerous or they perceive more costs than benefits for helping. Strategies for implementing the help: If it is safe and you are willing to help, implement the most appropriate skills and strategies for the situation Be the first! Sometimes the actions of one can give strength and permission to others. Create shared and agreed upon standards of behavior and expectations within your team Focus on S.E.E. S—Safe Responding: choose a course of action that best ensures the safety of those involved E—Early Intervention: before it becomes a problem, crisis, or disaster E—Effective Helping: Implement specific helping skills depending on the situation and avoid harmful helping Other factors that affect helping: Perspective taking—the ability to identify with the feelings, thoughts, and beliefs of another person Obedience to perceived authority How can we increase helping? Encourage/acknowledge prosocial, helping behaviors Increase and optimize decisions making steps Reduce the inhibiting factors Increase awareness and identification of risk factors Make the “in-group” more inclusive Practice perspective taking Increase knowledge, skills, and confidence
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