Note for INDV 103 with Professor Dalton at UA
Note for INDV 103 with Professor Dalton at UA
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
Reviews for Note for INDV 103 with Professor Dalton at UA
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/15
January 2531 2010 CHAPTER 2 COMPLEXITY Society A ComplexAdaptive System Something is complex if it has a complicated nature or is made up of many interrelated parts A social system is complex when 1 the population is diverse in the sense that people have different opinions attitudes and preferences and 2 they interact with one another on a regular basis heterogeneity and interconnectedness Adaption goaloriented change aimed at preserving and improving the parts or the whole of society Robert Axelrod s Model of Cultural Dissemination Axelrod s Model allows us to simplify and analyze human interactions and decisions Seefigure in Lecture 3 notes Simplicity and Complexity Three states of nature simplicity disorganized complexity and organized complexity Simplicity systems which function with a great degree of certainty Disorganized complexity arises when there are an exceedingly large number of component parts in the system and those parts are related to one another only through laws of interaction The difference between simplicity and disorganized complexity is that individual interactions are studied empirically in the simplistic systems but only statistical estimates of the average of disorganizedcomplex interactions are examined Organized complexity the system possesses feedback effects Feedback occurs when two elements in a system interact and this interaction changes how these elements will react to the same stimuli in the future Hayek concluded that it is impossible to know the full extent of decisions Information in Different Systems Simplicity over time exists if the value of a variable is described with certainty in every time period EH1 E AE E represents some event t is the present time period and t 1 is one period in the future Disorganized complexity change is described by EH1 E AE 81 strepresents a random variation from the average relationship Organized complexity change is given by EH1 E AE 81 61 5 measure the deterministic variation in the values of E that mimics but is not related to the random variations captured by 8 Logistics Equations Logistics equations are a set of mathematical representations that scientists use to describe organized complexity Robert May came up with the equation EH1 KE E12 K is the difference between the event in this period When the value of K is less than 30 the system moves to equilibrium in a linear fashion and the value of E stabilizes relatively quickly The equilibrium value of E is E K1K When the value of K is between 30 and 357 the value of E fluctuates around equilibrium cycling between a large value EL and a small value E5 The value assigned to the vent will never stabilized because it is forever changing as a result of feedback effects in the system The value of E fluctuated as K increases The Derivation of the Logistics Function Fertility is inversely related to population size fertility declines as population approaches its capacity limit Mortality increases with population as resources are stretched to their limits An equilibrium population size relative to capacity is achieved when fertility and mortality rates are equal Seefigure in Lecture 4 notes Resources and Communication May the irregular patterns produced by logistics equations are not the result of a changeable environment but are contained within the complexadaptive process itself Communication guides patterned and directed change Biological systems require resources to survive Competition for resources places constraint on an organism s ability to adapt and conditions the pattern of adaptation Populations that communicated well can work to match resource growth populations that do not communicate well suffer feast and famine cycles Uncertainty and Societal Structure Hayek without complete information we cannot make strong assumptions however it is impossible to gather such information It is impossible to be certain about the outcomes of decisions Hayek we can know a little about economics but not about others preferences and behaviors SUMMARY Axelrod created the cultural dissemination model to analyze the problems of managing and living within a complex society It allows us to consider both individual differences among various people and the social characteristics that connect and segregate them Weaver distinguished among simplistic disorganized complex and organized complex systems Biological and social systems have elements of disorganized and organized complexity May introduced the study of biological and societal systems using logistics equations that demonstrate the feedback effects in social systems
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'