Week 1 Notes BIOL 104 Principles of Human Physiology
Week 1 Notes BIOL 104 Principles of Human Physiology BIOL 104-03
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Dorsey on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 104-03 at University of Indianapolis taught by David Wolfe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Physiology in Biology at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
BIOL 104 Principles of Human Physiology Week 1 Lecture Notes 21 January 2016 Lecture 1: What is Science? Just some orders of business. All homework assignments are due at midnight Friday night o Check McGraw Hill Connect regularly Tests will always be on Friday (Prof. Wolfe hates Monday tests) th o First test is Friday, February 5 , 2016 Get the Clicker (RF Response Card) from Turning Technologies ASAP o The UIndy bookstore sells it for $56, IUPUI bookstore sells it for about $45 and you can find it even cheaper on AbeBooks.com and Amazon.com For those who are not familiar with my note format, I try to color code key points in my notes o Vocabulary/start of definition is yellow o Important terms are green o Important ideas are light blue o Roots of words are red o Function is pink Images used within my notes are public domain and do not originate from the textbook or the professor’s powerpoints What is Science? Both a noun and a verb Science: An organized body of knowledge about nature; a method of solving problems; a systemic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe Review the Scientific Method!! Pay attention to the arrows It is a FLUID process, not a rigid framework Hypothesis: an educated guess that you can do something with and find out if it is true or not o May come to new conclusions as you go through the cycle Scientific Ideas Correlation DOES NOT imply causation Facts: repeatable and consistent ideas Scientific laws and principles o Concepts have been tested for every possible failure point and are still true Science does not require belief The strength of scientific discoveries lies in their ability to withstand challenges o The more a scientific idea s challenged and remains usable, the stronger it is o Will eventually become public knowledge i.e. the force of gravity, the sun is the center of our solar system, etc. Why is understanding science important? To help prevent the widespread influence of inaccurate beliefs that do not have sound support to back them up o Biggest example of this right now are Anti-vaxxers (people who refuse to vaccinate their children) The US is the only country where vaccination rates are decreasing There have been a total of 26 cases of measles (which had previously been eradicated in the US thanks to vaccines) within the last year 22 cases in California 2 cases in Utah 1 in Washington 1 in Colorado Herd immunity only works with most of the herd (85%) is immunized Measles: highly infectious and spreads through the air; targets infants under the age of 6 months because they are too young to start the vaccine cycle; can be deadly “You are NOT entitled to your own facts and I’m not sorry about that. If you find this truth offensive, then you DESERVE to be offended by it.” – Michael Specter, “The danger of science denial” TED2010 22 January 2016 Lecture 2: Intro to Physiology Going over the basics Physiology: functions of the human body o Activity, how it works, what’s going on FFF: Form Follows Function o Form—Anatomy o Function—Physiology Homeostasis: “dynamic consistency;” maintaining some kind of balance/stable environment; “dynamic equilibrium;” o Not static o Constantly adapting and changing o i.e. maintaining body temperature when you’re cold shivering wastes large amounts of energy in an attempt to produce some heat when you’re hot sweating gets rid of excess heat o normal body temperature is approx. 98.6˚ higher average = more likely to feel cold “human ice cube” lower average = more likely to feel warm “human furnace” Negative Feedback Loops GOOD (most of the time) Set point want to be here; baseline Effector the stimulus Integrating center the brain/neural control that responds to the stimulus and triggers the antagonistic effector Antagonistic effector counteracts stimulus and returns to the baseline Negative feedback is not always the best thing but it usually is o Think of a sine wave, have to respond to both the highs and the lows in order to return to the baseline EXAMPLE: Orthostatic hypertension—gravity pulls down and makes your vision blacken/makes you dizzy; laying down to standing up o Get up slowly o Caused by negative feedback loop Another loop: breastfeeding an infant Increased Endocrine Feedback loop: blood glucose Decreased blood glucose Pancreatic islets Glucose leaves blood Increased Insulin and enters cells secretion o Simple sugars are absorbed very quickly Overwhelms insulin releasers which is why it is a problem for diabetics o Complex carbohydrates are absorbed more slowly and give insulin receptors time and other loops to help too Positive Feedback Loops BAD (most of the time) Stimulus leads to response that increases effects of stimulus o Ex. Avalanche, response to some musculoskeletal injuries (spraining your ankle), allergies Exceptions where positive feedback is a good thing: o Blood clotting (without causing a problem) o Hormone release during reproductive cycle o Birthing process Prevent positive loop to prevent secondary tissue damage (sprained ankle) Allergies immune system having a complete and total meltdown over a tiny stimulus (bee sting or peanuts) o When it is really extreme need an epi-pen o Nervous tissue reaction Sympathetic: freeze, fight, flight Triggered by epi-pen (epinephrine/adrenaline) Parasympathetic: rest and digest Hemostasis: cession of bleeding uses platelets to stop bleeding and initiate blood clotting Everything is made of chemicals and don’t let anyone else tell you otherwise Most common elements of the human body o Major elements Oxygen (65%) Carbon (18%) Nitrogen (3%) Calcium (1.5%) Phosphorus (1%) o Minor elements Sulfur (0.25%) Potassium (0.20%) Sodium (0.15%) Chlorine (0.15%) Magnesium (0.05) Iron (0.006%) Atomic Structure Nucleus o Proton (atomic number), neutron, atomic mass (proton + neutron), atomic number Orbit o Electron, valence electron Review reactivity o First and second to last columns of periodic table are most reactive o Noble gases do NOT react with anything Bonds Covalent o Polar: positive and negative sides; one side has the electron more often o Nonpolar: electrons shared equally between two atoms o “like dissolves like” Nonpolar solvents dissolve in nonpolar solutions Need an emulsion to make them mix Ionic o Cation: positive ion; gave electron to anion Cats are positive and fuzzy o Anion: negative ion; received electron from cation o Someone is stealing an electron during this bond Hydrogen bonding o Weakest bond o Creates surface tension o Responds to capillary action o Very physiologically important o Drives a lot of human physio function
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