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Chapter 3 Notes

by: Haley Aleshire

Chapter 3 Notes 1114

Haley Aleshire
GPA 2.68

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Notes from class and lab
Weather and Climate
Dr. Werner
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Weather and Climate

Popular in Foreign Language

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Aleshire on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1114 at University of Central Missouri taught by Dr. Werner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Weather and Climate in Foreign Language at University of Central Missouri.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
1. Radiation a. Wave Properties i. Amplitude: height of wave ii. Wave Length: distance between waves iii. Electromagnetic spectrum 1. Short Wave a. Gamma, X-Ray, Ultraviolet (UV), Visible, near infrared (NIR) 2. Long Wave a. Infrared (IR), Microwave, Television, AM, VLF b. Shorter waves = more energy c. Electromagnetic wavelength -> Light d. Cinderblock walls are transparent to radio waves e. Our bodies are transparent to x-rays f. Windows are transparent to visible light 2. Laws a. Planck’s Law i. Describes how much energy is emitted by an object at every wavelength 1. Everything in universe above 0 Kelvins is going to emit radiation 2. Quality of radiation depends on temperature 3. Hotter object will peak at shorter wavelengths 4. Warmer objects emit more radiation 5. Sun Peak Wavelength = 0.5 mm (micrometers) b. Stefan-Boltzmann Law 3. Solar Radiation a. The Sun i. General Properties 1. Radius ~ 700,000 km (~ 100X Earth’s radius) 2. Mass ~ 330,000X Earth ii. Structure 1. Core: energy being produced (15 million degrees Celsius) 2. Nuclear fusion: fuels cure 3. Photosphere: Skin of sun a. Sunspots: affect amount of radiation sun emits b. Energy Received by Earth i. About 1357 watts/square meter ii. Solar Constant c. Earth – Sun Radiation i. Earth’s Orbit 1. Earth goes around sun every 365.4 days 2. Elliptical pattern, not circular 3. Closest to sun, called Perihelion on January 4 th 4. Farthes from sun, called Aphelion on July 4 5. 91-94 million miles away from Sun (average) 6. Geometric plane – Plan of the ecliptic as orbits around earth ii. Earth – Sun Relation 1. Important Latitudes a. Declination / Sub-solar point b. Tropics i. Cancer: 23.5 degrees North (June Solstice declination ii. Capricorn: 23.5 Degree South (December Solstice declination) c. Circles i. Artic 1. 66.5 Degrees North (Dark 24 hours in December and light 24 hours in June) ii. Antarctic 1. 66.5 Degrees South (Dark for 24 hours in June and light for 24 hours in December) 2. Beam Spreading 3. Day length a. Varies through both time and location iii. Earth’s Rotation 1. Earth rotates on axis a. ONE revolution of axis every 24 hours 2. This gives us days/nights 3. Axis is tilted ~ 23.5 degrees relative to plane of elliptic iv. Earth’s Orientation 1. North Pole points to same spot all year long 2. Why do we have seasons? a. Constant orientation revolution i. North Pole tilted toward sun ii. North Pole tilted away from sun 1. This causes seasons iii. Solar Noon: When sun is at highest point in sky iv. Equator numbers start becoming negative when south v. Latitude 1. Angular measure (distance) North or south on Earth 2. Origin: Point where measure from (equator) a. Polar: North/South pole: High Latitude b. Tropical: Equator: Low Latitude c. 30-60 degrees: Middle latitude vi. Longitude 1. Angular measure East or West on Earth 4. How Latitude affects Climate a. Declination: latitude of overhead sun (sub-solar point) b. Latitude affects angle of suns highest point c. Highest point varies by place on Earth i. Angle Z: Zenith Angle ii. Angle A: Solar Angle iii. Z+A= 90 degrees 5. Influence of Atmosphere on Insolation a. Insolation – incoming solar radiation i. Clear Sky 1. Scattering (i.e. when you put your hand in front of water hose, water scatters) a. Known as Rayleigh Scattering i. Scattering is proportional wavelengths ii. Shorter wavelengths are more scattered iii. Blue scatters more than red iv. Reason why sky is blue 2. Mid-size scatterers a. Diameters ~ 0.1 – 10 wavelengths b. Called “Mie” Scattering c. On hazy day, colors can be mute 3. Large Scatterers a. Diameters (>10 wavelengths) b. Water droplets c. Geometric optics ii. Absorption 1. Atmosphere can absorb radiation a. O-zone absorbs UV iii. Transmission 1. Energy can be transmitted to the surface


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